Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - a disease characterized by irreversible or partially reversible, progressive obstruction (terrain violation) of the bronchi.This disease, which lead to blocking of the airways (bronchial), or damage to the small air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs, causing difficulty in breathing.The two main diseases;included in this group is the emphysema and chronic bronchitis;many suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, there are these two diseases.
Chronic bronchitis - is a constant inflammation of the bronchi, resulting in persistent cough with large amounts of mucus.When the cells lining the airways are irritated beyond a certain degree, the tiny cilia (hair-like growths), which typically catch and throw foreign objects do not work properly.Increased stimulation leads to over-production of mucus that clogs the air passages and cause coughing, bronchitis characteristic.Bronchitis is considered chronic when the patient coughs with phlegm for three months, and th
- this gradual lung damage as a result of tissue destruction and the loss of elasticity of the alveoli in which oxygen enters the blood, carbon dioxide exits therefrom.If the lungs are damaged by chemicals contained in cigarette smoke, or as a result of constant inflammation or chronic bronchitis, thin walls of the alveoli may gradually become thicker, lose elasticity and become much less functional.The loss of elasticity, often in combination with small restriction of the air passages in the lungs (and sometimes with their complete occlusion), used air leads to delay rather than to allow it to come out.Thus, the affected air sacs can not deliver oxygen to the blood and remove carbon dioxide therefrom;This is characteristic of emphysema is shortness of breath.Lung injury can progress until shortness of breath will not be very strong;from that moment the disease becomes a potentially life-threatening.Low oxygen levels in the blood can lead to an increase in pressure in the pulmonary arteries (pulmonary hypertension), which in turn may interfere with the right side of the heart to pump blood through the lungs properly.
development of chronic obstructive airways disease usually occurs gradually.It takes many years before symptoms appear, and by this time the disease has already reached a significant development.Lung damage constantly, but in many cases it can be prevented by avoiding smoking.Chronic airway obstruction occurs two to three times more common in men than in women.COPD is a disease regarded as the second half of life.The usual age of the patients - over 40 years.Men suffer more often.The disease is more common in socially advantaged countries.
COPD - a very insidious disease characterized by a slow progressive course.From the actual onset of the disease before its manifestation is held from 3 to 10 years.COPD symptoms begin to appear only in the second stage of the disease.
• Shortness of breath, worsening under load.
• Persistent cough with mucus, especially in the morning (a sign of chronic bronchitis).
• Chronic cough (symptom of emphysema).
• In severe cases, the symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can include coughing up blood, chest pain, and a crimson complexion.
• Swollen feet and ankles from right heart failure (cor pulmonale).
• Difficulties during exhalation.
• Smoking - the most common cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
• Air pollution may also be a contributing factor.
• Industrial emissions or vapors containing chemicals that can damage the airways.Repeated
• viral or bacterial lung disease can lead to thickening of the walls of the bronchi, narrow air passages and stimulate excessive production of mucus in the lungs.
• Hereditary deficiency of the enzyme alpha-1 antitrypsin may cause damage to the walls of the alveoli.
• More prone to emphysema are people who in their occupation are constantly exposed to dust, chemicals or other irritants lungs, as well as those whose profession requires constant use of a strong light, such as glassblowers or musicians who play wind instruments.
• Young children who live with smokers are more susceptible to chronic inflammation of the airways.
• necessary medical history and physical examination.
• Can be taken to a saliva sample analysis.
• needed blood tests of artery and vein (to measure the level of oxygen and carbon dioxide).
• chest X-ray is required.
• Spirometry is needed and other methods to check the functioning of the lungs in which the measure breathing ability and lung capacity.
• It is possible to measure the strength and efficiency of the heart muscle.
• Do not smoke;Avoid smoke-filled rooms.
• Drink plenty of fluids to loosen mucus.
• Avoid caffeine and alcohol, as they have a diuretic effect and can lead to dehydration.
• Moisturize the air in the room.
• Avoid going outside in cold weather or when the air is polluted, and avoid cold wet weather.If bronchitis has reached the stage of severe and incurable, you may want to consider moving to a place with a warm and dry climate.
• Do not use products that suppress the cough.Cough is needed to display the accumulated mucus from the lungs, and its suppression could lead to serious complications.
• Viral respiratory tract infection may cause a worsening of the disease;reduce the risk of infectious disease, minimizing contact with people suffering from infectious diseases of the respiratory tract, wash your hands frequently.Every year, get a flu shot and pneumonia.
• Can be prescribed a bronchodilator to expand the bronchial passages.In more serious cases, it may be prescribed oxygen.
• Your doctor may prescribe antibiotics to treat or prevent bacterial infectious lung disease, as patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are more susceptible to them.Antibiotics should be taken during the designated period.
• Your doctor may instruct you how to display the mucus from the lungs, taking different positions in which the head is below the torso.
• A certain can benefit from breathing exercises.
• In very severe cases, when there is severe damage to the lungs as a result of emphysema may be made by a lung transplant (if the disease weakened heart, recommended a heart transplant and lung).
At this stage, the disease usually has no clinical manifestations and does not need constant medication.Recommended seasonal influenza vaccination and compulsory vaccination against pneumococcal disease 1 every five years (eg, vaccine PNEUMO 23).
At the expressed symptoms of shortness of breath can be used short-acting inhaled bronchodilator.Preparations salbutamol, terbutaline, Ventolin, fenoterol, berrotek.Contra-indications: tachyarrhythmia, myocarditis, heart defects, aortic stenosis, decompensated diabetes, hyperthyroidism, glaucoma.The formulations may be used not more than 4 times per day.
It is important to make inhalation.If you are appointed for the first time such a drug, it is better to make the first inhalation, along with the doctor that he had pointed to possible errors.The drug must be inhaled (injected into the mouth) accurately on the background of inspiration that he was just in the bronchi, and not just "in the throat."After inhalation, it is necessary to hold your breath at the height of inspiration for 5-10 seconds.
individual drugs in this group is Flomax.Its distinguishing feature is the duration of at least 8 hours and a good expression of the therapeutic effect.The first two days of receiving the drug can cause cough reflex, which then passes.
If you have a cough with sputum appointed Mucolytics patients (drugs, thinning mucus).
Currently, the pharmaceutical market is represented by a large number of drugs with this effect, but, in my opinion, should be preferred drugs based on acetylcysteine.
example, ACC (for solution bags with the purpose of oral administration, effervescent tablets of 100, 200 and 600 mg) Fluimucil in effervescent tablets.The daily dose for an adult is 600 mg.
also a dosage form (acetylcysteine rr inhaled 20%) for inhalation via nebulizer.Nebulizer appart is to convert liquid drug substances in aerosol form.In this form, the drug enters the smallest bronchi and alveoli, and its efficiency is improved significantly.This method of drug administration is preferred for patients with chronic diseases of the upper respiratory tract.
2. Treatment of moderate form
For drugs used in 1 (mild) stage of the disease add a long-acting bronchodilators.
Serevent (salmeterol).Available in a metered dose inhaler.The recommended adult daily dosage of 50-100 mg / 2 times per day.It is necessary to clearly follow the techniques inhalation.
Formoterol (Foradil).Available in capsules containing a powder for inhalation using a special device (handihaylera).The recommended daily dosage of 12 mg / 2 times per day.
Alternatively, you can regularly use Flomax.If the drug is used in the form of a metered aerosol is conducted by 2 inhalations (2 puffs) of the drug three times a day: morning, afternoon and evening.Also, the drug is available as a solution for inhalation via nebulizer.In this case, the recommended dosage for an adult human nebulized drops 30-40 - 3 times a day.
relatively new, but already managed to prove itself well, the drug in the group Spiriva (tiotropium bromide).Spiriva is assigned to 1 times per day and is available in capsules for inhalation with a special device.One of the most effective means for the treatment of COPD in the present time.Active use is limited only by the relatively high cost.
At this stage of the disease must be a permanent anti-inflammatory treatment.
Appointed by inhaled glucocorticosteroids in the middle and high doses.Preparations: Beclason, bekotid, benacort, Pulmicort, Flixotide, etc.Available usually in dosage aerosols for inhalation or in the form of solutions (the drug Pulmicort) for inhalation by nebulization.
Also with this degree of severity of the disease combined preparations containing a long-acting bronchodilators and inhaled kortikosteroyd can be used.Preparations: Seretide, Symbicort.Combination products are currently regarded as the most effective means of treatment of the COPD severity.
If you are prescribed a drug containing the inhaled corticosteroid - always ask your doctor how to do inhalation.Improper conduct of the procedure significantly reduces the effectiveness of the drug, increasing the risk of side effects.After inhalation sure to rinse your mouth.
In addition to the assets used in the severe form of the disease, attach oxygen therapy (regular inhalation of oxygen-enriched air).For this purpose, medical equipment stores or in large pharmacies can find a large enough devices for home use and small cans that you can take a walk and be used in the amplification of breathlessness.
permitting status and age of the patient, surgical treatment.When
extremely grave condition of the patient may require mechanical ventilation.
When connecting infections - therapy to add antibacterial agents.Recommended use of penicillin derivatives, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones.Specific drugs and their dosages determined by the attending physician depending on the condition of the patient and his presence of concomitant diseases, such as liver disease and / or kidney - reduced dosage.
• Do not smoke (smoking - the first cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).
• Do not spend a lot of time outdoors on days when the air is polluted.
• Consult your doctor if symptoms become severe, for example, if increased shortness of breath or chest pain, cough worsened or you cough blood, if you have a fever, vomiting, or your feet and ankles are swollen more than usual.
• Make an appointment with your doctor if you experience persistent cough with sputum for the past two years, or if you experience constant breathlessness.
• Attention!Immediate medical attention if your lips or face acquired a bluish or purplish hue.