Emphysema - a disease characterized by an increase in lung air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles and the result is the destruction of lung tissue and irreversible increase in the alveoli (air sacs), which supply oxygen to the blood and remove carbon dioxide from it.
usually observed in chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, which take place in violation of bronchial patency.This expansion is gradually developing alveoli with subsequent destructive changes in their walls.As a result, the amount of air in the lungs increases, and not removed after deep exhalation (residual air).
Since alveolar walls thicken gradually they lose their elasticity, and their ability to push air out of the lungs during exhalation decreases.As a result, the affected air sacs can not properly fill with fresh air during inspiration and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli and the blood is broken.This leads to the shortness of breath, which is typical for emphysema.
First emphysema development occur
Emphysema can be acute and chronic.The sharp increase in light airiness can be, for example, asthma attack, sometimes with severe flu with bronchitis and partial occlusion of the bronchi.Transient emphysema observed on the healthy side or in the healthy regions of the lungs with pneumothorax, atelectasis, lung infiltrates.
Like chronic bronchitis, emphysema is a major lung diseases that are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Chronic emphysema is characterized by shortness of breath, cough (due to concomitant bronchitis), cyanosis.
Dyspnea initially occurs only during exercise, it is enhanced gradually and in severe emphysema becomes constant.Cyanosis is a diffuse, uniform and not accompanied by a cooling of the extremities (which distinguishes it from cyanosis in heart failure).The chest is usually enhanced with the increase of its anteroposterior size, has a barrel-shaped appearance.The angle formed by the rib arcs, usually directly over reaches 120 °.In light percussion defined box sound, especially pronounced in departments inferolateral chest.The lower boundary of the lungs is usually omitted, the mobility of the lower edges of the lungs is limited.Auscultation of the lungs breathing weakened, however, by the presence of associated lesions of the bronchi, it can be tough with extended exhalation and dry or wet wheezing.In the long emphysema and bronchitis due to pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular overload hypertrophy develops it, and then the lack of a stagnation in the systemic circulation.This reveals a surge in the epigastric region, which is associated with an increase in the right ventricle.When his liver failure increases.Usually, there is a tendency to tachycardia.The blood is often observed polycythemia.In the study of external respiratory function reveal a decrease in lung capacity, pneumotachometry and forced vital capacity indicators (air volume in the first second forced expiratory).It increases the amount of residual air.The disease runs a chronic, with a gradual progression of respiratory failure and chronic pulmonary heart.
Treatment and prevention focused primarily on the disease, which are related to the development of emphysema.It should prompt treatment of exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma.Under indications carry out anti-infectious therapy, prescribed bronchodilators (aminophylline, ephedrine).
When emphysema are important therapeutic exercise, breathing exercises, spa treatment in a dry warm climate.It recommends special exercises for the restoration of the lower thoracic, diaphragmatic breathing type.In some cases, artificial respiration is applied by means of special devices.In the presence of lung and heart failure need to limit physical exertion, inhalation of oxygen, diuretics, cardiovascular drugs.
• The only way to prevent emphysema is the avoid smoking.Although almost all smokers suffer some damage to the lungs, the rejection of cigarettes can prevent further damage to the body.
• Consult your doctor if you experience shortness of breath or gain if emphysema symptoms become more severe.