Periodontal disease and periodontitis symptoms
Periodontal disease (alveolar pyorrhea) - a disease which is based on neurodystrophic processes that lead to destructive changes in the ligamentous apparatus of the tooth, alveolus and root cementum.The process usually accompanied by reactive inflammation of the gums (gingivitis) with the occurrence of periodontal pockets, suppuration, loosening of teeth, an atrophy of the alveolar bone due to bone resorption.The process of chronic, developing slowly.
There are 3 stages of periodontal disease.
In the first stage bother discomfort in the gums, burning, itching, sensitivity disorder.Visible changes noted can not, on the violation of the X-ray of the bone structure of the alveoli is absent.
The main symptoms of the second stage - bleeding gums and gingivitis.Gums loosened, there are gum pockets, which can develop abscesses.Bone tissue between the teeth and resorbed mezhkornevyh partitions that are clearly identified on the radiograph in a vacuum cortical bone at the tops of partitions.T
In the third stage, there is atrophy of the gums and the alveolar bone, which entails exposure of teeth necks and progressive motility.
functional ability of the teeth is sharply reduced, and the mechanical load during chewing exacerbates the process and promotes greater loosening of the teeth, gums increase.There are periodic exacerbations, worse pain, abscesses develop.On the X-ray visible almost complete atrophy of the alveolar process.Outcome may be independent tooth loss.
With the development of periodontal disease are often complications arise in the form of a retrograde pulpitis, periodontitis, regional lymphadenitis.Defective processing of food by chewing can cause dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract.Chronic inflammatory lesions with periodontitis sometimes allergic support and septic condition, which is especially dangerous in patients with concomitant diseases.
Treatment of periodontal disease includes activities of local and general.Local treatment is directed at the elimination of factors contributing to the development of the pathological process;it holds the dentist (tartar removal, washing with antiseptic solutions gums, gum massage, physiotherapy, prosthetics).General treatment includes increasing the body's defenses (vitreous injection, vitamins and so on. N.).Given the progressive nature of periodontal disease, a medical worker is obliged to convince a patient suffering from the disease, start routine dental treatment.What kind of folk remedies can be used, see here.
Periodontitis -vospalenie dental periosteum, inflammation of the tissues that surround and support the teeth, including the gums and dental cells of the upper and lower jaws.The disease begins as gingivitis (gum inflammation is usually due to inadequate dental hygiene), which progresses if untreated.Gingivitis occurs when plaque (a sticky substance consisting of mucus, food particles and bacteria) and tartar (dense deposits composed of mineralized plaque and saliva) irritate and inflame the gum tissue, causing its gradual destruction.After some time, the gums collapse and form small pockets between the gums and teeth.When these pockets become deeper, they accumulate plaque and stone.The bacteria in plaque causes inflammation which leads to the destruction of bones and ligaments that support the teeth, which leads to the fact that the teeth begin to stick nests less durable.Pus is usually formed with the development of infection.In some cases, severe infection can lead to the formation of an abscess.Ultimately bone destruction becomes so strong that the teeth become loose.In fact, periodontitis and caries are not a major cause of tooth loss in adults.
addition, periodontitis may be a consequence of acute dental trauma (a blow) or permanent injury if it malocclusion (periodontitis traumatic).Sometimes periodontitis develops due to contact with periodontal any drug used in the treatment of the tooth (arsenic, formalin).
• Periodontitis occurs when gingivitis is not treated, and the expansion in the gums affects deeper tissues.
• If the disease is detected early enough, it is possible to completely stop its development by the simple removal of plaque and calculus from the root surfaces of the teeth at the dentist.This procedure may require topical anesthesia.Then it is necessary to strictly implement the program tooth brushing and flossing.Often the treatment of periodontitis should be performed every three months to keep your gums healthy.When a strong development of the disease may require surgery in which tissue is cut and moved away from the teeth so that the roots and bone supporting the teeth can be cleaned.Gingival flap was then sutured in place.
• Sometimes it may be necessary to use a bone graft or a Deputy to repair damaged bone.
• Newly emerged polymer pellets containing antibiotics which can be administered in a pocket between the tooth and the bone helps to stabilize the disease and to restore some of the lost bone.
• Free hold the teeth can be attached to other teeth;In some cases, the affected teeth must be removed due to the large bone fracture.Dentures or permanent dental implants are used to replace missing teeth.
Infectious periodontitis, being usually a complication of tooth decay, occurs as an acute inflammatory disease.Serous fluid accumulating around the apex, leads to the fact that the tooth is pulled out of several holes and becomes painful when biting.Particularly sharp pain occurs when purulent exudate.Percussion tooth gives a characteristic symptom of increased pain.Constant throbbing pain is often worse when you touch the tooth even language.Tooth gets the mobility, the gums around it swollen and hyperemic, regional lymph nodes are enlarged, painful.In the absence of the outflow of fluid through the root canal in the inflammatory process may involve the surrounding tissue until the development of cellulitis, osteomyelitis of the mandible.
In acute periodontitis creation of conditions for the outflow of fluid through the root canal, followed by the use of antiseptics and filling.If treatment by a specialist is not possible, measures must be taken to prevent the development of serious complications (tooth extraction).In the initial stages of periodontal disease can be used symptomatic treatment (antibiotics, analgesics, physiotherapy).
Chronic periodontitis is caused by inflammation of the productive (as a consequence of acute periodontitis).There are granulating, granulomatous and fibrous forms.Chronic periodontitis occurs usually asymptomatic, but in the form of a granulation are often acute pain with typical signs of acute inflammation of periodontal.This form gives the complications of fistula gums, palate, jaw, skin (fistula localization depends on the cause of the tooth and its root location).Sometimes the accumulation of granulation tissue under the skin (subcutaneous granuloma migrans) is defined as a limited bulging with cyanotic thinning skin, resembling a tumor.On radiographs of chronic granulating periodontitis is revealed in the form of bone loss at the apex without clear boundaries, unlike x-ray picture in granulomatous periodontitis, when the bone defect is visible from the top of the rounded shape of the root with clear contours, as the accumulation of granulation tissue is limited to connective tissue capsule.Asymptomatic long for this form of periodontitis can lead to the development of radicular cysts.The fibrous form is characterized by the development of chronic periodontitis in periodontal connective tissue.The course is also asymptomatic.On radiographs periodontal slit expanded.Chronic periodontitis can support the intoxication of the organism and cause allergic reactions.
Chronic forms of periodontal disease should be treated at the dentist;conservative and surgical methods may be used.If unable to special treatment and in patients with a history of history, where it is particularly dangerous to the presence of chronic foci of infection and sensitization, it is necessary to remove the tooth.
• Conduct thorough dental hygiene and visit the dentist at least once a year for inspection and cleaning of tartar.
• Immediately make an appointment with your dentist if you experience bleeding from the gums and stagger teeth.