Violation of the symptoms of cerebral circulation
Cerebral circulation - circulation system of the brain and spinal cord vessels.
process, causing cerebral circulatory disorders can affect trunk and brain artery (aorta, brachiocephalic trunk, common, internal and external carotid, subclavian, vertebral, basilar, spinal, radicular arteries and their branches), cerebral veins and venous sinuses, jugular veins.The nature of the pathology of brain vessels is different: thrombosis, embolism, luminal narrowing, bends and looping, aneurysm of the brain and spinal cord vessels.
severity and localization of morphological changes in the brain tissue in patients with impaired cerebral circulation are determined by the underlying disease, a pool of blood supply to the affected vessel, the mechanisms of development of blood circulation disorder, age and individual characteristics of the patient.
Morphological signs of cerebral circulation can be patchy and diffuse.To alopecia include hemorrhagic stroke, intrathecal hemorrhage, cerebral infarction;to diffuse - m
clinically in disorders of cerebral circulation can be subjective sensations (headache, dizziness, paresthesia, etc.) Without objective neurological symptoms;Organic mikrosimptomatika without clear symptoms of central nervous system function loss;focal symptoms: motor disorders - paresis or paralysis, extrapyramidal disorder, hyperkinesia, incoordination, sensory disorders, pain;abnormalities in the sensory organs, focal disturbances of the higher functions of the cerebral cortex - aphasia, agraphia, alexia, etc .;changes in intelligence, memory, emotional and volitional;seizures;psychopathology.
By the nature of cerebrovascular allocate initial manifestations of insufficient blood supply to the brain, acute stroke (transient disturbances, intrathecal hemorrhage, stroke), chronic slowly progressive disorders of cerebral and spinal circulation (encephalopathy and myelopathy).
Clinical symptoms of initial manifestations of insufficient blood supply to the brain are emerging, especially after strenuous mental and physical work, stay in a stuffy room, headache, dizziness, buzzing in the ears, decreased performance, sleep disturbance.Focal neurological symptoms in these patients, as a rule, absent or sparse soft signs.For the diagnosis of initial manifestations of insufficient blood supply to the brain is necessary to identify objective evidence of atherosclerosis, hypertension, vasomotor dystonia and the exclusion of other somatic diseases, and neurosis.
For acute stroke include transient disturbances of blood circulation in the brain and strokes.
transient ischemic attack, or appear focal cerebral symptoms (or a combination thereof), lasted less than 1 day.Most often they are observed in cerebral atherosclerosis, hypertension and arterial hypertension.
distinguish transient ischemic attacks and cerebral hypertensive crises.
Transient ischemic attacks characterized by the appearance of focal neurological symptoms (weakness and numbness in the extremities, difficulty of speech, violation of statics, diplopia, etc.) due to poorly expressed or absent brain symptoms.
for hypertensive cerebral crises, by contrast, is characterized by the predominance of general cerebral symptoms (headache, dizziness, nausea or vomiting) of focal, which sometimes may be absent.Acute ischemic stroke, in which the focal neurological symptoms persists for more than 1 day., Is considered a stroke.
Acute disorders of venous circulation in the brain also include venous hemorrhage, thrombosis of the cerebral veins and venous sinuses.
Chronic ischemic attacks (encephalopathy and myelopathy) are the result of a progressive failure of blood supply due to a variety of vascular diseases.
In vascular encephalopathy detected scattered organic symptoms usually combined with memory impairment, headaches, non-systemic dizziness, irritability, and others. There are 3 stages of vascular encephalopathy.
For stage I, except for scattered mild severe persistent organic symptoms (asymmetry of cranial innervation, lung oral reflexes, inaccuracies coordination, etc..), Characterized by a syndrome similar to asthenic form of neurasthenia (memory loss, fatigue, confusion, change the difficulty of the oneactivity to another, dull headaches, non-system dizziness, poor sleep, irritability, tearfulness, depressed mood).Intelligence is not affected.
For stage II is characterized by progressive memory impairment (including vocational), decreased performance, personality changes (viscosity thought, narrowing of the range of interests, apathy, often circumlocution, irritable, quarrelsome disposition etc.), A decrease of intelligence.Typical daytime sleepiness at night bad dream.The physical symptoms are more distinct (mild dysarthria, reflexes of oral automatism and other pathological reflexes, bradykinesia, tremor, changes in muscle tone, coordination and sensory disorders).
III stage is characterized by a worsening of mental disorders (up to dementia), as well as the development of neurological syndromes associated with a primary lesion of certain brain areas.This can be pseudobulbar palsy, Parkinson's disease, cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal insufficiency.Frequent insultoobrazno advancing deterioration, characterized by the emergence of new focal symptoms and signs of increased previously available cerebrovascular insufficiency.
Discirculatory myelopathy also has a progressive course, which can be roughly divided into three stages.Stage I (compensated) is characterized by the appearance of moderate fatigue of muscles, rarely limb weakness.Subsequently, in stage II (subcompensated) weakness in the limbs progressively increases, there are violations of sensitivity of the segmental and conduction type of reflex changes in the field.In stage III develop paresis or paralysis, pronounced sensory disturbances, pelvic disorders.
Character focal syndromes depends on the localization of lesions on dlinniku and the widths of the spinal cord.Possible clinical syndromes are poliomielitichesky, pyramidal, syringomyelic, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, zadnestolbovoy, transverse spinal cord lesions.
to chronic venous circulation include venous stasis, venous causing encephalopathy and myelopathy.It is a consequence of cardiac or pulmonary-cardiac insufficiency, compression of the extracranial veins in the neck and the other difficulty of venous outflow from the cranial cavity and the spinal canal can be continuously compensated.;decompensated possible headaches, seizures, cerebellar symptoms of dysfunction of the cranial nerves.Venous encephalopathy characterized by a variety of clinical manifestations.There may be hypertensive (pseudotumor) syndrome, diffuse brain damage melkoochagovogo, asthenic syndrome.For venous encephalopathy also include bettolepsiyu (cough epilepsy), developing with diseases that lead to venous stasis in the brain.Venous myelopathy is a special option dyscirculatory myelopathy and clinically not significantly different from the last.
the early stages of disease are asymptomatic.However, it progresses rapidly and gradually the symptoms completely wound the man, seriously disturbed performance, the person loses the joy of life and can not live a full life.
So, the symptoms of cerebrovascular accidents include:
headache - this is the main alarm bell, but people often ignore it, thinking that the pain caused by fatigue, weather or other reasons
eye pain - its main feature is thatit markedly increases during the movement of the eyeballs, especially in the evening
dizziness - when such a phenomenon observed on a regular basis, it is by no means the case can not be ignored
nausea and vomiting - usually this symptom manifests itself in parallel with the above
cramps - this symptom appears less likely than others, but still holds
numbness - in violation of blood circulation in the vessels of the brain, it comes completely without reason
tension headaches muscle, especially pronounced in the occipital
weakness in the body
blanching of the skin
There are also a variety of disorders of consciousness, such as:
change in perception, such as the feeling of stupefaction
memory impairment - man remembers his past, but often forget about plans, about where that is
fatigue andas a consequence of a decrease of efficiency
temper, easy irritability, tearfulness
constant sleepiness or insomnia contrary
Causes of this disease are very diverse.they are usually associated with other abnormalities in the cardiovascular system, such as atherosclerosis and hypertension.Atherosclerosis is a blockage of blood vessels cholesterol plaques, so I just need to monitor the concentration of cholesterol in the blood.And this should take care of their daily diet.
Chronic fatigue is also often the cause of circulatory disorders in our brain.Unfortunately, people often do not realize all the seriousness of their condition and go up to the terrible consequences.But chronic fatigue syndrome may not only lead to failure in the circulation, but also to a malfunction of the endocrine system, the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract.
Various traumatic brain injury can also cause disturbances.It can be any injury severity.Especially dangerous injury with intracranial hemorrhage.It is only natural that the stronger is bleeding, the more problems it can cause.
problem of modern man - a regular sitting in front of a computer monitor in an uncomfortable position.As a result, the muscles of the neck and back severely overstrained and blood circulation in the vessels, including vessels of the brain is disturbed.Excessive exercise can also cause harm.
Problems in the circulation is also closely associated with diseases of the spine, particularly the cervical spine.Be careful if you have a diagnosis of scoliosis or osteochondrosis.
main cause of cerebral hemorrhage is high blood pressure.With its sharp rise may occur rupture of the vessel, resulting in the blood reaching the brain substance and developing intracerebral hematoma.
more rare cause of hemorrhage - aneurysm rupture.Arterial aneurysm related, as a rule, to a congenital pathology is a saccular protrusion on the wall of the vessel.The walls of the protrusions have such a powerful muscle and elastic frame, which have a normal vessel wall.So sometimes it needs only a relatively small pressure jump that occurs in otherwise healthy people during exercise or emotional stress to the aneurysm wall exploded.
Along with saccular aneurysms are sometimes observed and other congenital malformations of the circulatory system, creating the threat of a sudden hemorrhage.
In those cases where the aneurysm is located in the vessel walls, located on the surface of the brain, it causes a gap does not develop cerebral and subarachnoid (subarachnoid) hemorrhage, located under the arachnoid surrounding brain.Subarachnoid haemorrhage is not directly lead to the development of focal neurological symptoms (paresis, speech disorders, etc.), but it marked cerebral symptoms: a sudden sharp ( "knife-like") headache, often followed by loss of consciousness.
Cerebral infarction usually develops due to blockage of a cerebral vascular or large (main) of the vessel head, in which blood flow to the brain.
four major vessels: the right and left internal carotid arteries, supplying the majority of the right and left hemispheres of the brain, and the right and left vertebral artery, then merging into the main artery supplying the brain stem and the blood, the cerebellum and occipital lobes of the cerebral hemispheres.
reasons for the blockage of the main arteries and the brain may be different.So when inflammation of the heart valves (with the formation of infiltrates or the formation of mural thrombus in the heart), or pieces of clot may break off and infiltrate the bloodstream to come to a cerebral vascular caliber of which is less than the size of the piece (embolus), and thereby block the vessel.Emboli can become disintegrating particles of atherosclerotic plaques on the walls of one of the main arteries of the head.
This is one of the mechanisms of cerebral infarction - embolic.
Another mechanism of heart attack - thrombotic: the gradual development of a thrombus (blood clot) in the location of atherosclerotic plaque in the vessel wall.Atherosclerotic plaque filling lumen leads to slow blood flow, which promotes thrombus formation.Plaque rough surface favors the bonding spot (aggregation) of blood platelets and other cells, that is the basic skeleton formed thrombus.
As a rule, some local factors for the formation of a thrombus is often not enough.Thrombosis contribute to such factors as the general slowdown of blood flow (and therefore cerebral vascular thrombosis in contrast embolism and bleeding usually occurs at night during sleep), increased blood clotting, increased aggregation (sticking together) properties of platelets and red blood cells.
What is blood clotting, the experience everyone knows.Man accidentally cut his finger, he begins to pour out the blood, but is gradually formed on the site of a cut blood clot (thrombus) and the bleeding stops.
blood clotting - a necessary biological factors that contribute to our survival.But as reduced or increased clotting threaten our health and even our very lives.
Increased clotting leads to the development of thrombosis, reduced - bleeding at the slightest cuts and bruises.Hemophilia - a disease accompanied by a reduced blood clotting and has a hereditary character, suffered many members of the royal families of Europe, and among them the son of the last Russian Emperor, the Tsarevich Alexei.
Violation of normal blood flow and may be the result of spasm (severe compression) of the vessel, coming as a result of a sharp reduction in the muscular layer of the vascular wall.A few decades ago spasm attached great importance to the development of cerebrovascular events.Currently, cerebral vascular spasm-associated cerebral infarcts mainly that sometimes develop several days after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
With frequent elevations in blood pressure may develop changes in the walls of small blood vessels that feed the deep structures of the brain.These changes lead to a narrowing, and often to the closure of these vessels.Sometimes a small heart attack develops after a sharp rise in blood pressure (hypertensive crisis) in the basin of the circulation vessel (hereafter called "lacunar" literature infarction).