Psychosis and psychopathy symptoms
Psychosis can occur in various human diseases.
Mental disorders at cerebrovascular have a progressive character.In accordance with the course of the disease, they appear the following periods:
1) symptomatic period asthenic, neurotic and psychopathic syndromes that have arisen on the basis of functional and dynamic disturbances due to atherosclerosis of brain vessels;
2) the period of marked clinical manifestations with anxiety and depression, anxiety and hypochondriacal, anxious and delusional syndromes and acute confusional developed on the basis of atherosclerotic encephalopathy;
3) the period of dementia dismnesticheskimi impairment (dementia psevdosenilnaya, postapoplekticheskaya), developed on the basis of gross atherosclerotic organic brain lesions.
In the initial period of the most frequently detected asthenia.Patients with reduced capacity for work, there are fatigue, difficulty switching from one activity to another, difficulty in mastering new things, malaise, weight and pressure in th
In the second period against the background of increasing somatic and neurological disorders (see. Internal Medicine, nerve disease) patients develop anxiety and depression with depressed mood, tearfulness, lack of confidence in their abilities, concern for their health.Patients experience a variety senestopatii ( "tingling face", "bake neck", "numb feet," and so. D.).There hypochondriac fixation on minor physical pain.When anxiety and hypochondriacal patients are able to express the disturbing concerns if they have any disease (usually cancer), looking at the signs of the disease.In some patients, there are hallucinatory-paranoid disorder with the presence of delirium damage exposure, harassment (the patient insists that the neighbors conspired against him with a view to rob him live at his expense, in their actions all the time he is looking for the secret meaning, no longer go out izhome, locked in the many castles).
In the third period the condition of dementia (dementia).Patients greatly upset memory on current events, and relatively preserved in the past.A marked dementia.Patients are helpless, can not take care of themselves.The traumas of bleeding in the brain may be the postapoplekticheskoe dementia, which is reflected in the deep memory disorders, violent laughter and weeping, utter helplessness with the inability to care for themselves and in the surrounding amnestic disorientation.May develop late epilepsy.In chronic ischemic brain disease in some patients develop dementia psevdosenilnoe with aphasic disorders and violation of praxis, a sharp decline in memory with a shift in the past, the disorder of orientation in the environment and self.
treatment of mental disorders in atherosclerosis depends on the clinical picture.Asthenic and neurotic state in the first period is reversible.After treatment of atherosclerosis used Aminalon - 0,25 g 2-4 times a day, strengthening therapy, tranquilizers.Employability of patients usually recover.It should be dynamic observation in the mental hospital for decompensation warning, which is usually associated with trauma, alcoholism, and other exogenous factors.Requires the correct mode, alternating feasible for patient labor and leisure.Used to treat depression pirazidol, azafen, amitriptyline, imipramine (imipramine).drug dose is usually low (at higher doses in patients may develop delirium-oznye phenomenon).When paranoid syndromes are shown triftazin, chlorpromazine.Dosage is determined individually, depending on the mental, physical and neurological condition of the patient (see. Internal Medicine, nerve disease).Treatment of epilepsy later carried phenobarbital and other antisudorozhnymi means (see. Epilepsy).Employability of patients in this period is usually lost.When atherosclerotic dementia symptomatic therapy;patients in need of care and supervision.
Mental disorders in hypertension difficult to distinguish from atherosclerosis.In the initial stage of hypertension also develop asthenic syndrome, there is a weakening of memory: usually upset remembering this, this.There may be a violation of consciousness that occur suddenly, last from several hours to several days, accompanied by a sharp rise in blood pressure and are at lower hypertension.Confusion may manifest as delirium with vivid visual hallucinations sometimes intimidating nature;there are individual auditory hallucinations.
pseudotumor syndrome in hypertensive disease resembles the clinical picture of the development of brain tumors.Patients complain of intense headache, euphoric, irritable, often are angry.Develops bradipsihizm with slow motion.Pseudotumor syndrome develops acutely, and it is the foundation of a hypertensive crisis psevdoparalitichesky syndrome can develop after hypertensive stroke.Patients euphoric, complacent, with severe memory impairment;range of interests is limited to domestic issues, efficiency is lost;sometimes there is a revaluation of the self;critical attitude to his condition in patients not.
treatment.Along with general therapeutic measures (. Cm Internal Medicine, nerve disease) for hypertensive psychosis can be used psychopharmacological drugs: reserpine, chlorpromazine, propazin, thioridazine (Moeller), galoperiol.The use of these funds requires constant monitoring of blood pressure fluctuations in order to avoid the development of severe collapse and continuous monitoring of the neurological status of patients in order to avoid complications extrapyramidal nature of the nervous system.
Mental disorders can arise at different stages of infection.Typically, at the end of an infectious disease is marked so-called fatigue with increased convalescent exhaustion, irritability, headache.Asthenia passes gradually over 1 to 3 weeks.Recommended restorative therapy.In the acute phase of infection in individual patients may develop dizziness in the form of delirium, at least amentia.With the development of delirium appear multiple visual hallucinations fantastic or frightening nature, the sick turn away from the outside, are not oriented in time and setting, but the orientation is stored in the self.Patients are afraid, restless.Amentia accompanied by profound perplexity, bewilderment affect, incoherence of thought and speech as meaningless set of words.There disorientation in the environment and self.Patients with excited, do not answer questions.Duration amential stupefaction - from several days to several weeks;for recovering patients do not remember the acute period of the disease.It is necessary to carefully monitor the patient's condition.
treatment.Recommended the appointment of sleeping pills as insomnia is an early symptom of mental disorders.For relief of the excitation which occurs in confusion, it is recommended the administration of 25% magnesium sulfate solution - 10 ml / m, a 2.5% solution of chlorpromazine - 2 ml / m or 0.5 ml of a 0.5% solution of haloperidol / m.Spend detoxication therapy (infusion of glucose), massive vitamin therapy, subcutaneous injections of isotonic sodium chloride solution, drinking plenty of fluids, sound nutritious diet.Patients with acute infectious psychosis is not recommended to transfer to a psychiatric hospital.They should be left in the infectious ward for the treatment of the underlying disease, isolate them from other patients and assign individual non-stop medical aid post.
Despite some commonality in the development of mental disorders in acute infectious diseases, for some diseases it may be noted the inherent features.
Mental changes in the first period of the disease characterized by mental depression, lethargy, fatigue.At the height of the disease sometimes at night there is a momentary delirium with an abundance of visual hallucinations and motor excitation.At the end of physical illness with symptoms of physical exhaustion in some patients may develop amential dizziness with disorientation in the surrounding, confusion, bewilderment, incoherent speech;sometimes observed motor excitation within the bed.Patients in need of strict supervision, assigning individual health post.
treatment.In addition to the etiological treatment, recommended measures aimed at improving the physical condition (injection of glucose, vitamins, with the development of delirium - sedation, haloperidol - 2.5 mg / day / m triftazin - 5 mg / day / m (inside psychotropic drugsnot to give).
Mental disorders occur at an altitude of lobar pneumonia. most observed delirium with multiple visual hallucinations frightening character, sharp excitation (patients are trying to run somewhere). the intensity of stupefaction ranges. Psychosis is more frequent during the crisis and is associated not onlywith intoxication, but also with the phenomena anoxaemia
Treatment:.. inhalation of oxygen, use of sedatives (valerian, Leonurus) and heart of patients in need of strict supervision, assigning individual health post for a period of delirium
Mental changes are characterized by asthenia, on.against which may develop depression with suicidal thoughts.In severe influenza virus may occur with sudden delirium motor excitation, sometimes with the cranial nerves, the heat.Psychosis last for several days.Usually ends in recovery.Encephalitic flu-like psychosis with vascular lesions of toxic and inflammatory sometimes ends lethally.Treatment is symptomatic and anti-toxic.Patients need close supervision of medical staff.
Mental disorders can occur at lristupa height in the form of delirious stupefaction with abundant stsenopodobnymi hallucinations, disorientation with the surrounding, a transition in amential state.Duration - from several hours to several days
Treatment - see malaria treatment quinine, or quinacrine, restorative therapy, sedatives -. Etaperazin, Chlorprothixenum in small doses.
Mental disorders are characterized by delirious dimming of consciousness at the height of the disease with the development of delirium "double" (the patient seems to be that close to him is another man), with delusions of exposure (patients feel that their bodies break), with a sense of some catastrophe(patients seems that they are flying somewhere, fail);anxiety and depressed mood with excitement.Psychosis usually lasts until the resolution of the disease, ending a long sleep and severe asthenia.Patients in need of strict supervision, need a special post for the duration of delirium.Treatment - symptomatic, restorative, sedatives (etaperazina small doses).Between asthenia recommended Aminalon.
With the increase in the number of cases of infectious and allergic genesis with sluggish current, which include brucellosis, rheumatism and so on. E., Were found other forms of mental disorders.Prolonged and severe illness accompanied by severe fatigue, may occur in the form of protracted psychoses affective, paranoid and organic psihosindromov.Protracted psychoses occur for a long time - from 2-3 weeks to several months.Depressive states are characterized by frequent mood swings throughout the day - from depression with suicidal thoughts to depression with irritable weakness and exhaustion, grumbling, dissatisfaction with the surrounding environment, treatment.Paranoid state characterized by the development against the backdrop of severe fatigue of so-called primitive nonsense attitude with unstable delusions, the content reflects some external situation (perceived wrong patient) and is constantly changing along with the change in this situation.Patients say that they are treated worse than others, give less medication, want to get rid of them.In some cases, an unfavorable course of the underlying disease, protracted psychoses may go into organic personality changes with reduced memory and criticism, exhaustion, apathy.
Treatment is the same as treatment of the underlying disease, and restorative therapy, chlorpromazine - 12-50 mg / day, triftazin - 5-10 mg / day, and depression - pirazidol.
Patients in need of supervision of medical personnel, it is recommended an individual post.
This mental disorders arising from exposure to a variety of toxic factors -.. Industrial poisons, insecticides, poisonous mushrooms, etc.
for acute intoxication characterized by dizziness often in the form of delirium, sometimes passing into stupor and coma.Accompanied by a number of somatic and neurological disorders Prolonged chronic intoxication develop reversible, but with a protracted course of depressive-paranoid, catatonic syndromes, sometimes amnesic (Korsakoff's) syndrome.Further, reduced intelligence, impaired memory, gradually increasing organic dementia.
symptomatic treatment, detoxification, careful use of antipsychotics only when protracted psychoses.The need for hospitalization of patients, bed rest, close observation.
characterized by recurrent affective episodes (depression or mania) followed by complete recovery of health (light period).The etiology of the disease is not sufficiently clear.It attaches importance to family history, which is based on a constitutional anomaly.Predisposing moments include psychological trauma and physical illness.The disease usually occurs in adulthood, more common in women.
depressive phase. The clinical picture takes a leading place in the form of mood disorder anguish, as well as other changes in mental activity.Extended syndrome is characterized by affective, ideational and motor braking.Tosca is a vital character, accompanied by pains in the heart.Patients bleak without experiencing interest in life, your future are hopeless, bleak surroundings perceive.Thinking slowed differs monotonous depressive content;any mental stress seems heavy.Patients complain of memory loss.Many are, the impulse to activity decreased, slowed movement, facial expression mournful, it is quiet, monosyllabic.Patients expressed delusions of self-blame, they consider themselves criminals, superfluous people.Some patients have suicidal thoughts and tendencies;decreased appetite, disturbed sleep, reduced body weight;marked tachycardia, increased blood pressure, wide pupils.