Prostate cancer symptoms
cancer (carcinoma), prostate - a malignant tumor that develops due to abnormal and uncontrolled cell division Prostate gland the size of a walnut, located just below the bladder in men;This gland produces about 30 percent of the liquid part of semen.damaging and destroying the surrounding tissue.How to use folk remedies in this illness, see here.
Prostate cancer occurs often: it develops in about 10-13 each of the men in their lifetime.Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in men and is the second leading cause of deaths from cancer among men.It often occurs in older men.Autopsy Data show that between 60 and 70 percent of men who have reached the age of 80 have at least some formation of microscopic prostate cancer.Symptoms do not appear until the cancer has not spread beyond the prostate, so regular screening is very important.
Every year from prostate cancer in developed countries more than 200 thousands die. Men (mostly elderly) and fixed over half a million new cases of th
carcinoma can progress very slowly over several years.Symptoms related to it at this time is essentially the same as the symptoms of benign prostatic tumor.But tumor nodules formed from zhelёzok adenoma, only pushing the healthy tissue, disrupting certain organs.Exactly the same tumors in cancer cells emit agents that create a whole network of nodes, moving further away from the place of origin.prostate cancer spreads to lymph nodes and metastasizes to bone.
Because prostate cancer usually develops very slowly and takes years to spread it, the elderly is not necessary to undergo immediate treatment enhanced.Such patients after diagnosis of prostate cancer should follow the strategy of waiting.This means regular checks and blood tests, and treatment should be started only if there is evidence of tumor growth.The specific treatment depends on many factors: the age of the patient, the characteristics of cancer cells, tumor size, indications of the early spread of cancer to other parts of the body and the risk of complications.Prostate cancer can be cured by removing the gland before the cancer has spread.However, there is much disagreement about when to recommend to the patient to do the operation, because it is impossible to predict which cancers will spread and which are not.Once the cancer has spread beyond the prostate, it can not be cured.In some cases, prostate cancer never spreads;overall outlook is good, when the cancer is detected early.
first signs that should alert the patient:
American scientists have concluded that most prostate cancers occur in men who are overweight.Therefore, physicians are advised to complete all men, especially those suffering from prostate cancer, lose weight.
First of all hereditary cellular characteristics that in cancer cells transferred from generation to generation.Normally they suppress the immune mechanisms and "asleep" to the opportunity.We can only speak about the factors which drive cancer cells to develop.In second place - the contact, especially long, with carcinogenic substances in connection with their professional activities associated with chemical, radioactive, etc.reagents, living in polluted areas.Influence as harmful preferences in food, addiction to alcohol, smoking.And the latter is not less than did hurt those who do not smoke, but I have to be around smokers.
radiation, even in small quantities, without the necessary protection, ultraviolet radiation and other impacts of this series are often the impetus for the growth of cancer cells.
established and hormone dependent prostate cancer - he never occurs in eunuchs.It discusses the viral nature of the cancer, but still this is not confirmed experimentally.
Some scientists believe that the growth of the total male prostate tumors contributes to an excess of protein and hormone imbalance (low levels of testosterone and high levels of estrogen).
Prostate cancer can be determined only by special examination methods.They are similar to the diagnosis of BPH.It is - in the definition of blood prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate ultrasound through the probe, fine needle biopsy of the prostate.But at the core - the classic method of rectal probing finger through the rectum.Using this procedure, the physician receives basic information.
helps in diagnosing metastases X-ray, CT and MRI.
• Medical history and physical examination, including a digital rectal examination.
• Blood tests.A blood test for prostate specific antigen is the most informative test for early detection of prostate cancer.Prostate specific antigen, an enzyme secreted by the cells lining it is necessary to dilute the sperm after ejaculation.Typically, small amounts of antigen into the bloodstream, but the prostate cancer antigen levels in the blood are usually raised.However, since such non-malignant abnormalities nonmalignant hyperplasia (enlarged prostate) and prostatitis may also cause an increase in levels of antigen, other tests are necessary to confirm the diagnosis.
• Multiple prostate biopsy is needed to confirm the diagnosis.Ultrasonography enables visualization of the prostate and can accurately place a needle biopsy to obtain tissue samples.Small tissue samples were taken via a needle inserted into the prostate through the rectum, guided by ultrasound data.
, ask your doctor to choose the treatment that best suits you the following questions.
1. What options can you offer me?
2. How often the cancer spread if left untreated?
3. How do you think it is possible to cure my cancer?If yes, what are the chances?
4. What treatment would you recommend and why?
5. How many times you've done this procedure?
6. How soon will we know if the treatment helps?
7. What is the risk of side effects such as impotence or incontinence?
8. How soon can I return to work?
9. Why can not I do?
10. If the treatment does not work, are there any other options?
main problem at oncologists - later treatment patients to a specialist.Cancer is treated successfully only in the early stages.
• Because prostate cancer usually develops very slowly, waiting is a common strategy, under which a regular examination and measurement of prostate specific antigen levels, to control tumor growth and move to a more aggressive treatment, when necessary.Waiting is often recommended for men aged 70-80 years, in which the cancer is usually local.
• Complete surgical removal of the prostate gland (radical prostatectomy) is the most common type of treatment;It usually also includes removal of nearby lymph nodes.The study of the location of structures important for erectile function and urinary control, greatly reduced the risk of impotence and incontinence.Surgery is usually recommended for men aged 50-60 years.
• Radiation therapy to destroy cancer cells it can be recommended for older men or for those who can not have surgery.
• In marked development of the disease, when the cancer has spread, the surgical removal of the testicles or hormone therapy (in which prescribed substances that block the production or function of male hormones) may slow the growth of cancerous prostate tumors and thus slow down or stop the further spread of cancer.Chemotherapy is used when hormone therapy can slow tumor growth.
are the following stages of the disease:
Stage 1 - no tumor site, tumor can be identified only by biopsy;
II stage - there are 2-3 tumor site (the size of 1.5-2 cm), prostatic capsule is not damaged, the lymph nodes are healthy;
III stage - a tumor beyond the prostate, but not the lymph nodes are affected, yet movable iron;
IV stage - tumor is fixed and has grown into the neighboring organs.
initial stages involve surgery - radical prostatectomy - removal of the tumor to healthy tissue.This is supported by radical treatment by radiotherapy, which at a later stage is used as a single method, and end-for treating tumor metastasis in bone.
Recently, surgical castration is replaced by pharmacological, ie the treatment of female sexual hormones.
Since today blood tests can detect prostate cancer at an early stage, many men have a large variety of treatments.One of the options - is to refuse treatment and to watch for signs and symptoms of tumor development.This approach is called in different ways, for example, waiting for the observation of expectant or therapy.You do not do anything, except that closely monitor the tumor, making regular blood tests and rectal examination palpatsionnoe approximately every six months.Sometimes you may need to do a biopsy.
If you are young enough and healthy - from 50 to 70 years - the doctor may recommend a different approach.Because of your age at cancer remains a lot of time on growth and development, and even a small, slow growing tumor may eventually require serious treatment.Sometimes the cancer cells suddenly begin to grow so rapidly and spread further, that treatment becomes difficult or impossible.
However, if you are over 70 years old and your tumor grows slowly, waiting under surveillance may suit you.In 2002, Swedish scientists of studies have been published which were followed for 700 men, whose average age was 65 years.Studies have shown that patients who chose surgery, then less frequently suffered from cancer has spread, and less likely to die from the disease than those who chose to wait under observation.However, after six years of performance in both groups became approximately equal.This happened because men after surgery were more likely to die from other causes unrelated to cancer.
carefully tracking your condition, you and your doctor will be able to take immediate action if the cancer has suddenly become aggressive and treatment will be necessary to stop or slow down its development.
you can come under the supervision of the expectation, if:
you 70 years or more and your cancer is small and grows slowly (Gleason score less than six).
cancer is localized only in the prostate gland, and you need time to consider further action.
you can not stand the side effects of treatment because of age or health related problems.
For some other reasons, your life expectancy is less than 10 years.
What are the benefits of expectant approach?
you do not run the risk of impotence or incontinence associated with other treatments.
Waiting supervised gives you time to think about other treatment options.Small tumors may double in a few years, and you are using this time to their advantage - this is not a short time.
This is the cheapest option, requiring only regular inspections and analyzes.
While you wait, the cancer can grow.Although it happens rarely, but sometimes slow-growing cancer can suddenly turn into a fast-paced.Research published in 2001 suggests that approximately 13% of men for two years, the quality of cancer has changed significantly: Gleason score increased to six or fewer points to seven and more.In such cases, the cancer treatment requires a radical which can produce more side effects than is the case if the treatment was started before.
you can be constantly preoccupied with their condition, all the time worrying about tumors and thinking about the tests and analyzes.Although more and more radical treatment is risky, it can reduce the fear that you're playing with your life.
Surgical removal of the prostate - a direct and effective means treatment of prostate cancer.This type of surgery called radical prbstatektomiey.They are performed in two ways - operative approach through the perineum (transperineally) or retropubic way.
Most men 40 to 50 years and a lot of men and 70 pro-opt radical prostatectomy.Most men 70 to 80 years old prefer surgery radiation therapy, and men over 80 years in general usually refuse treatment.
New techniques and tools that have appeared in the last twenty years, have significantly changed the surgery.Surgeons now use the new technology removal of the prostate, which was allowed to leave intact muscle and nerve bundles olizlezhaschie responsible for urination and sexual function.Technical solutions, controlling bleeding, allow a much reduced loss of blood and eliminated the need for blood transfusions.
When retropubic approach the prostate is removed through an incision in the lower abdomen.When crotch approach iron is removed through an incision that is made between the anus and the scrotum.
What is cancer?
In simple terms, cancer - a group of "rabid" cells that grow faster than normal and did not die in due time.Moreover, they are bullies, adolescents, not "ripen" to the state when they can perform the function of cells of the tissue to which they belong.What they "immature", the faster growing.Your body is constantly in a normal condition, new cells are formed, who live their term and then replaced by new cells.For example, skin cells live only a few weeks.A microscopic cancer cells grow in small clusters or nodules the size of a pea, which continue to grow and grow, becoming denser and firmer.
have a certain average Russian man is likely to receive a diagnosis of "prostate cancer" is about 16%, 8% - that the cancer will manifest severe symptoms, and about three percent, that he may have Meret from prostate cancer.
usually cancerous prostate tumor grows slowly and does not go beyond the prostate.In this case, it does not cause serious problems.But not all behave in the same tumor.Some forms of prostate cancer can be very aggressive and spread rapidly to other organs.
What causes the occurrence of cancer and why tumors behave differently, is not known.The researchers suggest that there can play the role of a combination of different factors, such as family medical history, ethnicity, hormones, diet and the environment, viral diseases, tension immunity, especially psychological makeup, and so on. D.
But one thing is known exactly.If cancer is detected, then, until it has spread beyond the prostate gland, in most cases it can be cured.When the tumor spread to other organs, the treatment becomes much more difficult - but not hopeless.The goal of early diagnosis and treatment of cancer, - firstly, to prevent the spread of the tumor, and, secondly, to maintain the quality of life of men, whose health is severely tested that spread cancer.
prostate cancer at an early stage generally does not give pain.However, when the cancer has spread beyond the prostate limits on adjacent organs and bones, it can already cause severe pain.But this does not mean that you have to live with this pain.There are many effective methods of relief of severe pain.The following are the great majority of the methods used in the world for this purpose.This is not true.