Vegetables and fruits in the diet
Almost all vegetables, fruits, fruits and berries can be used in dietary nutrition.However, there are exceptions.It means sorrel, radishes, beans and some other plant foods which are often excluded from the diet of patients.It is necessary in all cases to seek the most suitable methods and ways of dieting claims, but not to the detriment of its enrichment of fruit and vegetables.It
from providing food fresh fruits and vegetables depends on maintaining a healthy digestive system, as well as high resistance to adverse factors acting on human health.
in atherosclerosis prevention and fight against the development of neuroses, stress states as an elementary means of combating a particularly important role is played by the systematic inclusion in the diet of fresh vegetables and fruits.
can reasonably argue that if there is in the diet of fruits and vegetables, there is no normal digestion.Research of Russian scientists (Pavlov, IP Razenkova NI Leporskogo et al.) Have shown that fruits and vegetables are
most important property fruit and vegetables is their ability to stimulate the release of enzymes.Thus, fruits and vegetables provide a good digestion of proteins.In more complete absorption, and therefore meet the need in the protein while minimizing its content in the diet.
Critical vegetables and fruits are in metabolic regulation.The best means of normalization of fat metabolism and combating obesity is to move food mostly vegetarian diet composed of milky-vegetable diet.
Today reliably confirmed high lipotropic properties of fruit and vegetables.In the prevention of atherosclerosis, they must therefore be used in the most extensive way.
extremely important health factor - normal and optimal functional ability of the intestinal microflora.Development of putrefaction in the intestine can lead to bloating and self-poisoning organism.Self-poisoning violates the activities of many systems, especially the digestive, nervous and cardiovascular.
famous Russian scientist II Mechnikov gave so much importance of intestinal auto-intoxication, he considered it a major obstacle in achieving longevity.Mechnikov conducted experiments on animals showed that the animals in the feed which is introduced putrefaction products from the human intestine, developed pronounced sclerosis of the aorta.
proved that one of the causes of atherosclerosis - a systematic autointoxication putrid products, is absorbed from the intestine.The best way to normalization of beneficial intestinal microflora and prevent intensification of putrefactive processes in the gut - the inclusion in the daily nutrition of fresh fruit and vegetables, sauerkraut, fermented milk drinks.
Yet the main value of vegetables and fruits in human nutrition is that their composition has an indispensable, vital, biologically active complex substances, which the body can not be achieved at the expense of other foods.This complex includes vitamins (C, P and carotene), a number of organic acids (malic, citric, etc.) And a group of minerals that maintain the body's acid-base balance.
biologically active complex of fruit and vegetables in the body creates an optimal internal environment.
It is known that the main physiological role of vitamin C is to maintain the normal state of the capillary walls and retaining their elasticity.With a lack of vitamin C have an increased fragility of small vessels and a tendency to hemorrhage.
second most important property of vitamin C is the normalization and improvement of the internal environment of the organism in the fight against all adverse factors.Under the influence of vitamin C increases the activity of protective mechanisms.Proved regulating effect of vitamin C on cholesterol metabolism, revealed his role in the prevention of atherosclerosis.Vitamin C has many other parties and physiological effects, testifying to its paramount importance.
Another important vitamin vegetables, fruits, fruits and berries - vitamin E comprises a group of P-active substances called bioflavonoids and polyphenols.Their number exceeds 150 names.
main physiological role of bioflavonoids is their kapillyaroukreplyayuschee action and reduce the permeability of the vascular wall.Vitamin P, for example, normalizes capillaries and increase their strength.An expression communication, parallelism in the biological effect of vitamin C and vitamin P. Vitamin Both are effective in the treatment of scurvy and the elimination of other phenomena C-vitamin deficiency.Vitamin P has a hypotensive action - the ability to lower and normalize blood pressure (which can be used for the treatment of hypertension).
That is why vitamins C and P in its biological action uniform.They have synergy.In assessing the vitamin activity of certain products must take into account both the content of vitamins.
With total registered content of vitamins C and P becomes more distinct idea of the vitamin activity of many foods.Previously, for example, the carrot was considered a weak source of vitamin C. However, high levels of change is the presentation of the vitamin P.Carrots can be seen not only as an unrivaled source of carotene, but as the product of the average C-P activity.
Or another example.Grapes are extremely poor in vitamin C (6 mg%), while at the same time contains a significant amount of vitamin F (290-430 mg%).Thus, it is not so little value in vitamin nutrition product.
As we can see, for the determination of C-vitamin value of vegetables and fruit is necessary to consider not only the content of vitamin C, but also the content of bioflavonoids (vitamin P).High in vitamin C and vitamin P are different sweet pepper red and green, sea buckthorn, parsley, Brussels sprouts, dill, etc. The need for vitamin C -. 70-100 mg per day of vitamin P - 35-50 mg per day.
vitamin third coming only in the fruit and vegetables, it is a carotene, which in plants is usually associated with the protein.The greatest activity has beta-carotene.The main biological role of carotene is its ability to be converted in the body into vitamin A. However, carotene performs an important role in the independent function of the adrenal glands and the formation of the hormone of the adrenal cortex.Need carotene - 3.4 mg per day (two times greater than vitamin A).
carotene content in certain foods (mg%) is: fresh red carrots - 9;carrots dry - 40;Fresh apricots - 1.6;dry apricots (dried apricots, dried apricots) - 3.5;fresh rose hips - 2.6;dry rose hips - 6.7;buckthorn - 10;sweet red pepper - 2;sweet green pepper - 1;Salad - 1.75;tomatoes - 1.20;dill - 1;parsley - 1.7;green onions - 2;potatoes, cabbage - 0.02;sorrel - 2.5.
Vegetables and fruits have many common features, however, each type of their peculiar and some individual characteristics.We'll talk about this in more detail.
aware of the high nutritional properties of the potato as a "younger brother" of bread and its nearest substitute.It has long been highly appreciated valuable protein potatoes and wonderful carbohydrates.There is evidence of a favorable balance of amino acids of proteins of potato.At low protein content in the potato (2%), it still has a role in meeting the needs of the body of the protein.It turns out that the potato carbohydrates are less used to zhiroobrazovaniya (formation of excessive body weight) than carbohydrates grain products (especially of bakery products from flour of higher grades).
Potatoes - the main supplier of potassium.Its content in potatoes is 568 mg%.In normal potato consumption (300-400 g per day) in the body receives about 2 g of potassium 60-70% which satisfy the need for it.Potassium uninterrupted supply is important because it increases the excretion of water and sodium from the body, and improves the heart muscle.Potassium diets may be considered as a prophylactic against atherosclerosis and hypertension.
By its high biological and dietetic properties of all its species occupy a leading place.Many carry the cabbage to a product identical in biological value of lemons.Indeed, an important biological component lemons - vitamin C is represented therein in an amount of 40 mg%, and cabbage contain vitamin C 50 mg% of red in - 60 in Brussels - 120 mg%.
Lemon vitamin C is stored for a long time (up to six months or more).In cabbage the same thing happens.Properly maintaining cabbage unbroken, nepodmorozhennyh, nepodgnivshih Kocani vitamin C remains almost entirely throughout the winter.Excellent preserved vitamin C and sauerkraut.
In cabbage contain other biologically active substances, which are not yet fully understood.It is, for example, tartronic acid which has an effect on fat metabolism, delaying and reducing the conversion of carbohydrates to fat.However, tartronic acid is unstable to heat.Cabbage, subjected to heat treatment, it loses.That's why you need the widespread use of nutritional dishes (salads) from raw cabbage.
The cabbage contains other biologically active substance having dietary and medicinal properties.This vitamin U, exhibiting therapeutic effect in speeding up the healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers.Title Vitamin and received from the Latin «ulcus» - ulcer.According to their chemical structure of vitamin U is a derivative of methionine - S-methylmethionine sulfonium chloride, which is cabbage juice.In combination with other therapeutic agents has been applied in certain periods of treatment of peptic ulcer.
recently found that vitamin U has protivoskleroticheskim action.High biological activity differs brussels sprouts, in which vitamin C and other biologically active substances represented approximately 2 times more than the cabbage.Especially valuable is the kind of cabbage broccoli, which combines all the bioactive components of cabbage and asparagus.
In conclusion, it should be noted the importance of dietary fiber cabbage.This fiber can be cleaved during digestion and absorbed.Simultaneously, it has a fairly pronounced stimulating action on the locomotor function of the intestine.
Cabbage fiber (fiber as most vegetables and fruits) helps to eliminate cholesterol from the body, and has a normalizing effect on the livelihoods of helpful intestinal microflora.
Beetroot has a number of dietary properties.First of all, it should be noted especially the biological action of its coloring substances - anthocyanins.The latter are not so widely available in foods and found in the shells of dark-colored fruits and berries (in the dark grape, cherry and others.).
most realistic source of anthocyanins in the diet is just beet, which is consumed at all times of the year.
Dye beet substance - anthocyanins contain bioflavonoids - betaine and betanin.The first has lipotropic properties, and the second - hypotensive action, normalizes blood pressure.Beet, thus, it can be regarded as a food product, which is used in the diet in atherosclerosis.In
beet contains a significant amount (0.9%) dietary fiber, more than radish (0.8%), cucumbers (0.7%) and cabbage (0.7%).
Beet fiber has a beneficial effect on digestion, stimulating the motor function of the intestine.This contributes greatly to the high content in sugar beet pectin (4,8-7,2%), which is 2-3 times more than in a recognized source of pectin, apples (1,6-5,6%).Beet
also rich in potassium (288 mg%) and iron (1.4 mg%), which is well absorbed and best used in the body.Well known high content of sugar beet (9%).His beets in as much as in melons.
Despite the this, organoleptic properties of red beet is not perceived sweetness to such an extent as melon.This is due to the special composition beet sugars and the presence of concomitant substances to some extent inhibit the sweet taste.Thus, the beet - food, especially shown in the diet of people of mature and elderly in the form of salad and other dishes.
Eggplant - not frequently used in our food, and in vain.After all, they are characterized by high biological activity.
Eggplants have a high palatability and simultaneously exert some dietary properties.Influenced
eggplant decreases blood cholesterol levels, which then enters the bile and vigorously with it is excreted.
very important not to miss the season eggplant.It is necessary that during the season the eggplant were used in one form or another in the daily diet.
excellent in regard to gustatory and biologically active eggplant caviar.It retains all the nutritional properties of eggplant, if stored properly, it can be stored for a long time.However, it should be borne in mind that the breach of the rules of preparation and storage of eggplant caviar could lead to its damage and lead to the occurrence of food poisoning.
Tomatoes most often exposed to incorrect evaluation and unjustified restriction of consumption.It is often said that tomatoes are dangerous because of their alleged negative impact on salt metabolism.Violations of salt metabolism justified if tomatoes rich in oxalic acid.However, a detailed study of its content in different types and varieties of tomatoes has not confirmed this.Oxalic acid in tomatoes appeared negligible amount not exceeding 5 mg%, less than in potatoes and beets (40 mg%) 8 times.
The tomatoes are well represented, many organic acids, particularly malic and citric.The salts of organic acids that make up the tomatoes in the process of assimilation in the body leaves a substantial margin of alkaline minerals and thus contribute to the alkalization of the organism and prevent acidotic (acidic) translations.Therefore, tomato support needed in the body acid-base balance.
low content of purines (4.2 mg%) in tomatoes is an important link in the structure bezpurinovogo food for the prevention of atherosclerosis.
These vegetables contain folic acid, which plays an important role in hematopoiesis, and contributes to the formation of choline in the body - a substance that normalizes cholesterol metabolism.
Thus, the tomatoes can be widely used in human nutrition of a mature-aged and elderly, and patients with impaired exchange soaked acid (gout).
in all seasons periods considerable useful role, can play a canned tomato, and especially tomato juice, which can fully replace fresh tomatoes.
Meat and meat products in addition to its high nutritional value and important role as a source of high-grade protein are indispensable and important dietary value.It is mainly determined by the content of extractives in the meat, as well as collagen and other substances kleydayuschih.
particularly active role played by dietary nitrogen extractives - creatine kornozin, anserine, purine bases (purines).
Main extractives value lies in their taste properties and stimulates the secretion of digestive glands.Their presence is largely determined by the taste of meat, especially soups and fried products, which comprises a complex formed crust flavor, extractives, concentrating it in the roasting process.Furthermore, in this crust are highly active in taste regarding fat decomposition products used in frying.
adult animal meat extractives richer than the meat of young animals.Strong broths can be prepared from meat is adult animals.Extractives are vigorous pathogens digestive glands (especially the stomach).