Anthrax - a disease caused by spore-forming bacterium.
source of infection are farm animals (cattle and small cattle, and partly - pigs).By anthrax infection can lead violation of sanitary and hygienic requirements for the care of sick animals, slaughtering, processing of leather, wool or bristle.Factor of transmission is also the soil on the ground of the former burial grounds.Repeatedly we observed also domestic infection (wearing a woolen shawl, infected with spores of anthrax bacteria and others.).The agent may penetrate into the body through intact skin (contact transmission mechanism), mucosal (upper respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract).Infection by inhalation of dust way leads to the development of a rare form of lung disease.Upon germination in the body there is a transition in a very virulent spores vegetative forms, which are responsible for the development of clinical symptoms.
In place of introduction of infection into the body there necrotic tissue changes (skin form) or serosa
are the following basic clinical forms of the disease:
4) primary septic.
Most other common skin disease.The incubation period of 3 to 14 days.It developed as a result of penetration of spores and vegetative forms of anthrax bacteria through the cracks, abrasions, scratches or skin wounds.First, on the site of entry of the pathogen appears red, severely itchy spot, which soon turns into a tight knot - papule.After 10-20 hours on top of the bubble formed papules, soon brimming with serous-bloody contents.Thus formed pustule bursts;in its place a black scab formed, consisting of necrotic tissue, resembling charcoal.Further scab sinks, 4-5 is formed around the secondary, daughter bubbles, each of which further leads to the formation of small necrotic eschar.A so-called anthrax carbuncle.On the periphery of the central and peripheral scab develops a massive swelling of soft tissues - skin and subcutaneous tissue.in the field of tissue edema jelly tense, the skin shiny.In the area of soft tissue edema completely painless - even tingling pin.The disease is accompanied by a significant rise in temperature (up to 40-41 ° C), general weakness, depressed mood, insomnia and loss of appetite.At the end of the disease both central and small peripheral rejected scab, scar tissue replaces them on the skin to form a surface crust.
When pulmonary form of disease onset acute, with fever, rapid increase in body temperature up to 41 ° C, followed by a cough, accompanied by the release of large amounts of liquid, frothy pink sputum.Sometimes there is pain in the chest.The course of the disease and the prognosis is always serious serious.Heavy flows and intestinal form, which is characterized by severe intoxication and simptoty hemorrhagic enterocolitis.
disease is recognized on the basis of epidemiological and clinical data.Diagnosis is confirmed by isolation of anthrax bacteria from the patient's body (of the carbuncle, blood, sputum, vomit, feces).We pose a skin allergy test with the introduction of intra-dermal specific allergen (0.1 mL antraksina).
All patients hospitalized with anthrax.Treatment is carried out Proto vosibireyazvennym globulin.After preliminary tests and desensitization intradermal injected i / m 10 ml of 30-60% globulin solution.Course of treatment 5-7 days in decreasing doses.In the absence protivosibireyazvennaya globulin serum may be used (100-200 ml / m).Desensitizing the same rules as for the introduction globulin.Introduction Immunopreparat combined with antibiotic therapy.Only with milder forms of the disease can restrict some antibiotics.Apply in a dose of penicillin 000-4 2000 000 000 U / day with administration of 4 to 6 times a day.The course of treatment for 7-8 days.Perhaps the use of tetracycline, chloramphenicol.In severe forms of conduct detoxication therapy, prescribe anti-shock blood substitutes, corticosteroids, cardiac agents, oxygen therapy.
Prevention includes veterinary inspection for agricultural animals, the study of animal products (leather, wool, bristle) for infection with spores of anthrax bacteria and prevention of such raw materials for processing without prior decontamination;categorical prohibition of eating meat from sick or suspected anthrax disease of animals;compliance with specific rules burial of dead animals that died from anthrax;preventive vaccination of animals and humans (special vaccines).Persons who have been in contact with sick animals, subject to the active medical supervision for 2 weeks