Hormonal failure symptoms
for the normal functioning of cells necessary to its volume and osmolarity of intracellular fluid maintained within very narrow limits.These parameters are regulated in part through the factors that determine the gradient of concentration of electrolyte solution (particularly sodium salt) at the level of the cell plasma membrane.Mechanisms for determining concentration gradient include passive diffusion of some of the water and electrolytes through the cell membrane active transport of ions through energy consuming pump located in the membrane.The constancy of the cell volume and osmolarity is determined to some extent the osmolarity of extracellular fluid, which, in turn, is regulated by the action of ADH, affecting the renal distal tubules and excretion of determining water in urine.
Normally the dominant extracellular cation - sodium, which largely determines the osmotic pressure of the extracellular fluid.It depends on the concentration and varies with fluctuations rather relative (not absolute) val
If maintaining the osmolarity of extracellular fluid depended on ADH, the volume of blood (plasma volume) to vary widely during the day, as the person consumes sporadically different amounts of water and salts.Due to these fluctuations in the admission of food and water relatively constant blood volume should be controlled by a complex regulatory mechanisms.It is now established that directly participate in sodium and water balance in the body taking regulation following systems.
The main function of these regulatory hormonal systems is to maintain the constancy of the volume of circulating blood through their impact on the movement of sodium and water in the kidneys.These hormonal systems determine the amount of sodium and water in the extracellular fluid.
diseases associated with impaired secretion of hormones that provide sodium and water homeostasis
Laboratory diagnosis of disorders of hormonal functioning of the systems of exchange of sodium and water regulation in the body is complex - in most cases, necessary to carry out the whole range of research, the main ones are as follows.
reproductive system consists of certain structures of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, gonads, the target organs (the fallopian tubes, uterus, and others.).Elements of the reproductive system of interconnected information signals, allowing it to function as a single unit.
critical role in the regulation of reproductive hormones is given.reproductive hormones are classified according to their chemical structure and the place of secretion.Accurate determination of the concentration of these hormones in the body fluids of a person is essential to assess the functional state of the hormonal systems of regulation of the reproductive system and diagnose diseases that cause their violation.Determination of the hormones are widely used to determine the causes of both female and male infertility, in which, in many cases, the first place is a violation of hormonal regulation.
Classification of the most important hormones that regulate reproductive functions in their place of synthesis
hematopoietic organs constitute the largest by volume and activity of the organ of the human body, localized mainly in the bones.Approximately 20-30% of bone marrow accounted for erythropoietic tissue.In a healthy person the number of circulating red blood cells is 25-30h1012 cells.Maturing within 12 days the cells erythrone doing a 11-12 division.The lifespan of red blood cells to 120 days;daily adult human body is produced and destroyed 2h1011 erythrocytes.
functioning of the bone marrow as a body providing a concentration of the constancy of Hb and the number of red blood cells depends on many factors, among which the main role is played by the presence and concentration of vitamin B12 and folic acid, iron for the synthesis of Hb, as well as the regulation of specific (cytokines -IL-3, erythropoietin) and nonspecific (androgens) hormones.The central role in hormonal regulation of erythropoiesis erythropoietin belongs.
Evaluation of the hormonal status of the thyroid gland reveals its three functional status: hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and euthyroid state.Determination of TSH in conjunction with fT4 - one of the leading "strategic" markers in the evaluation of thyroid hormone status.
TSH is considered the most sensitive indicator of thyroid function.Increasing its content in blood serum - a marker of primary hypothyroidism, and the reduction or complete absence - the most significant indicator of primary hyperthyroidism.Determination of fT4 is the most informative in patients with suspected abnormalities binding proteins and allows to evaluate the real T4 in the body.
Joint determination of TSH and fT4 is important for the selection of adequate therapy of violations of thyroid function.The dose of thyroid hormone drugs, which are used in the treatment of hypothyroidism, respectively is selected in the blood TSH concentration (adequate treatment is accompanied by the normalization).
Determination of fT4 is especially important for monitoring the treatment of hyperthyroidism, because the recovery of pituitary function may require 4-6 months.In this step, the recovery of TSH concentration in the blood can be reduced, even though the content fT4 normal or reduced and adequate treatment of hyperthyroidism.
now been developed program of prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome, neural tube defects.post-natal screening programs include early diagnosis of congenital AGS, hypothyroidism.
winter, our hormonal system functions differently than in the summer, it is in a state of stress.In the cold season it is important for the body to maintain body temperature.Particularly active in the cold conditions of the sympathetic nervous system, that is exciting the nervous system, which turns on and under stress.To stimulate the metabolism and thus produce more heat, the adrenal glands in the winter as a cold shower, in growing quantities released into the blood stress hormones, fight and flight - cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine.These hormones give the body extra energy reserves.The thyroid gland is in a cold and begins to vigorously secrete hormones to flood the furnace of the body and to maintain body temperature.Under the influence of stress hormones and thyroid enhanced basic metabolism, burn more calories.During a walk in the cold consumes about 50 calories per hour more than the summer."Kindling the furnace" is our body more vitality.