Pneumonia ( lung inflammation ) symptoms in children
Pneumonia (pneumonia) - an acute infectious disease that affects the lung tissue.The disease is insidious, especially for young children.
Classification of pneumonia
morphologically distinguished species such as:
Under infections are divided into:
with perinatal infection;
in patients with immunodeficiency.
Adrift pneumonia can be:
Outpatient pneumonia occurs at home or to the first 48 hours in hospital.
nosocomial pneumonia occurs after 48 hours of stay in the hospital or within 48 hours after discharge from hospital.
age children and specific pathogens
Newborn - 1 month - streptococcus group B, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella, E. coli, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, fungi of the genus Candida.
1 month - 6 months - chlamydia, mycoplasma, Pneumocystis premature.
6 months - 6 years - Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus rarely.
6-12 years - Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae (rarely), often atypical pathogens - Chlamydia, Mycoplasma.
Nosocomial pneumonia - Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, E. coli.
main route of penetration of the pathogen in pulmonary tissue in children bronchogenic: infection spreads along the respiratory tract through the bronchi to the alveolar tissue.Hematogenous (metastatic) path is less common and occurs in sepsis, viral infection.A major role in the pathogenesis of pneumonia plays a surfactant system failure, predisposes to atelektazirovaniyu, the immaturity of the lung tissue in children.
initial changes in the lungs, usually found in the respiratory bronchioles, where there is ampoule-shaped extension of the bronchi, there is no developed ciliated epithelium and less developed muscle tissue.When coughing or sneezing retrograde infection gets into the larger bronchi and thus bronchogenic spread.Thickening the membrane, increasing blood flow, accumulate inflammatory fluid, detritus, metabolic products.Part of the light off the act of breathing, but reflexively neighboring alveoli, lobules compensate for ventilation, ensuring the diffusion of gases.Under the influence of toxins of pathogens increased body temperature, increased release of catecholamines.As a result of increased blood pressure, accelerated blood flow, frequent pulse and respiratory rate, increases metabolism.
pneumonia in school-age children do not differ from pneumonia in adults.At the same time, the younger the baby, the more important for the diagnosis of common symptoms are compared with local.
Young children should pay attention to symptoms such as shortness of breath with no signs of bronchial obstruction, cyanosis, tension nose wings, indrawing of compliant places of the chest, frothy nasal discharge.On the other hand, such a classic physical symptoms of pneumonia, as local percussion and auscultation changes may not occur, determined in the later periods of the disease or in severe pathological process.
In the early days: cough, runny nose, low-grade or febrile body temperature.Pay attention to changes in pulse ratios to breath instead of 1: 3-1: 4, it becomes 1: 2.5 or 1: 1.5.Percussion changes to 1-2 days of illness are not marked.In the future there may be a so-called blunt tympanitis.Auscultation at the beginning of the disease is listened hard breathing, frequent local wet sounding krepitiruyuschie or wheezing.In the analysis of blood revealed moderate leukocytosis, accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate.Uncomplicated pneumonia in children without the express unfavorable premorbid background are treated for 1-4 weeks.
striking 1 or more lung segments.At the fore more pronounced than at the focal pneumonia, respiratory failure, intoxication.The physical data are more scarce, more significant data percussion.
Clinical manifestations of segmental pneumonia are 1-2 weeks, but the radiographic changes are kept up to 3 weeks.Possible complications in the form fibroatelektaza with a further evolution in the process of bronchiectasis.
Lobar pneumonia is diagnosed very often, sick children mainly older.The most frequent pathogen - pneumococcus 4 - type.It occurs primarily in children with increased and altered reactivity.Expressed intoxication may abstsedirovanie.
Treatment of pneumonia in the outpatient setting is only possible at a relatively good general condition, in older children, with a high sanitary culture of the parents.In such cases, the hospital is usually organized at home.
Hospitalization other patients made Pulmonary box compartment with a maximum separation.
optimal mode, bright, well aerirovannnye Chamber.
situation in bed.The child must be put in a semi-sitting position with slightly upturned head.Clothes should not hamper breathing movements.
Food should be familiar, high-grade, but easily digestible.More than half of the daily amount of liquid must be glucose, moderately sweet tea, alkaline mineral water.
the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia should be based on the assumption that home pneumonia is most commonly Streptococcus pneumoniae.And so should prescribe penicillin, but with no effect - ampicillin, cephalosporins in sredneterapevticheskih doses.For the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia, a combination with aminoglycosides cephalosporins, rifampicin.When the anaerobic flora are required to gentamicin levomitsitin.Pneumonia caused by Haemophilus influenzae, treated with gentamicin, cephalosporins, rifampicin.