Rabies symptoms in humans
Rabies - acute zoonotic viral infection of the brain, which first affects the animals.Raccoons, skunks, bats, foxes and other mammals may be ill with rabies;domestic dogs and cats can also be infected.Rabies can be transmitted to humans through the saliva of an infected animal, usually through the bite, although the virus can also enter the bloodstream with licks on broken skin.Once bitten the virus replicates in the muscle tissue, and then strikes the end of the peripheral nerves, multiplies in the neurons and spinal ganglia after reaching the central nervous system, causing clinical manifestations.Basically, the virus accumulates in the brain and salivary glands.
Rabies is fatal if not immediately take action to prevent the development of disease.Therefore, if you are bitten by an animal, seek medical advice immediately.Do not expect to see if you will manifest rabies;as soon as the symptoms appear, the disease becomes irreversible, despite treatment, and death occurs within a few days.Symptoms most
• The reason is the rabies virus, which belongs to the Rhabdoviridae family, genus Lyssavirus.
• Symptoms in the early stages: fever, muscle pain, headache, poor general state of health, loss of appetite, difficulty in swallowing, tingling and twitching of muscles at the site of the bite.
• Severe muscle spasms caused by swallowing the liquid (hence the name hydrophobia).
• agitation and aggressiveness.anger periods are followed by periods of calm, but as the disease progresses quiet periods are becoming shorter and less frequent.
• Drooling due to excessive salivation and difficulty swallowing.
• Seizures, paralysis and coma.
• Medical history and physical examination.
• Biopsy of nerve tissue.
• It is necessary to make every effort to catch the animal bites you, to his brain could be tested for the virus.Healthy-looking animal is under observation for 10 days to detect any abnormality in his behavior.
important to promptly detect rabies in an animal has bitten a man.Laboratory diagnosis of rabies in animals that have bitten a person, and the Bereaved is based on the finding in their brain-specific antigen (by fluorescent antibody) and detection of the virus (by bioassay).In the context of the virology laboratory of sanitary-epidemiological establishments may conduct research using the fluorescent antibody technique.Detection of the virus bioassay method requires special conditions, and it is performed only in special laboratories.
material for the study is the brain.In addition to the brain, you can explore the fabric of the submandibular salivary gland.However, in this tissue contained rabies virus in a smaller amount than in the brain.When taking the material for the study of animal and human corpses autopsied in compliance with the necessary precautions, wearing rubber gloves and masks to the entire face of the cellophane or organic glass.The brain is aseptically removed from the skull and take the small (0.5-1.0 g) pieces from different departments: the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, medulla oblongata and hippocampus.
to a biological sample of the brain slices are placed in a sterile, Close can of undiluted neutral sterile glycerol or diluted 1: 2 with isotonic sodium chloride solution.
for microscopic examination were cut pieces in the transverse direction, 4.3 mm thick, of the same brain as the biological sample.After taking a piece of the brain into a separate dish take pieces slyunnnyh submandibular glands.Floating pieces of brain and submandibular glands are stored and forwarded in compliance with the rules for handling material from patients with particularly dangerous infections.
is a highly sensitive and specific method of fluorescent antibodies, the results of which coincide with the results of the biological sample.Moreover, using the method of fluorescent antibody response can be obtained very quickly (within a few hours after the start of the study).Specific antigen in rabies can be identified in smears and histological sections of the brain and submandibular salivary glands.For rabies diagnosis used direct and indirect fluorescent antibody variants of the method.Rabies virus antigen is detected in the formulations in the form of bright green pellets of various shapes and sizes - from subtle to have 15-20 mm in diameter - in the dim yellowish background of normal brain tissue.The specificity of fluorescence detected check control administration.
For bioassays sterile formulation taken various pieces of the business brain ground in a mortar, and then by adding saline solution, prepare a 10% suspension.If there is no confidence in the sterility of the material, it is added thereto antibiotics (500 U penicillin na1 g tissue).After 30 minutes of contact at room temperature is introduced into the test material 5-6 brain white mice weighing 4-5 g They express disease symptoms appear quickly.Starting from 4th day after infection, one infected animal slaughtered.In their study of the brain in smears using fluorescent antibody technique detects specific antigen.
clinical manifestations, results of autopsy, the method of fluorescent antibodies and biological sample are dostatchonymi for podtverzhedeniya or exclude the diagnosis of rabies.
• Contact your doctor immediately if you are bitten by an animal.
• Thoroughly wash the wound with soap and water and then apply an antiseptic.
• vaccination two days after the bite usually stops the progression of the disease.Needed two types of immunization: passive immunization with antibodies to provide immediate protection against the rabies virus;active vaccine induces the production of antibodies for the long-term protection against the virus.Passive vaccine is wound around and into the muscle.Active vaccine is administered in divided doses.People who have already received the active vaccine, should receive only a passive treatment.
• Antibiotics and re-immunization against tetanus may be required to prevent bacterial disease associated.
• If you develop symptoms requiring hospitalization;but the prospect of developing the disease in this case is unfavorable.
• Vaccinate pets against rabies.Rabies in wild animals remains a challenge.
• People at high risk of disease (veterinarians and other people who work with animals, hunters, cavers and people planning to live in developing countries where rabies is common) should go about vaccination annually.
preparations for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of rabies:
1) luminescent rabies serum;2) rabies gamma globulin is made from blood serum of horses immunized with fixed rabies virus;applied intramuscularly at a rate of 0.25-0.5 ml per 1 kg of body weight for special circuits depending on the severity of the bite;
3) rabies vaccine inactivated culture obtained by accumulating the rabies virus in primary cell cultures of Syrian hamster or transplanted human lung diploid cells;immunizations coupled with the introduction of rabies gamma globulin.
• In areas where rabies is common, stray animals are often killed to prevent the spread of disease.
• In countries where there is no rabies, for example in England, Japan and Australia, imported animals are quarantined.
• Attention!Seek immediate medical attention if you are bitten by an animal;do not wait for the symptoms of rabies.