Rheumatoid arthritis symptoms
Rheumatoid arthritis - a chronic allergic disease caused by immune disorders;It affects mainly the joints of hands and feet, but can cause inflammation of the joints throughout the body.Joints contain many structures that make movement free.The ends of bones in a joint are protected from rubbing against each other elastic layer called cartilage.The whole joint is surrounded by a capsule, which is called a bursa.The thin layer of tissue (synovial membrane) and releases a bag lining the synovial fluid that provides lubrication to facilitate movement.How to use folk remedies in this illness, see here.
disease is characterized by limited mobility of the joints in the morning, pain and swelling in the joints of the fingers, ankles, knees, wrists and elbows.Moreover, during the day it comes more or less significant improvement.The defeat of the joints is usually symmetrical.With the damaged cartilage, ligaments, tendons, subchondral bone layers, deformed joints over time.This leads to a limitation in their
In the early stages of rheumatoid arthritis synovial membrane becomes inflamed and thickened, causing pain and loss of joint movement.As the disease progresses the cartilage and ends of the bones are destroyed.This results in extensive damage and deformation of joints.Joint pain is often preceded by general, non-specific symptoms: fever, fatigue and loss of appetite.Before the advent of pain may also occur joint stiffness, especially in the morning.
important feature of the disease is pain, swelling, redness and fever small joints of the hands and wrists.The process may also cover the elbows, shoulders, knees, hips, ankles, legs and neck.Symptoms usually occur symmetrically, that is, the joints on both sides of the body are usually affected at the same time.In some cases, other organ systems, including the eyes, the heart and lungs may also become inflamed.
Symptoms occur in the form of long-term attacks that could be interspersed periods of weakening disease with a reduction or complete absence of pain and stiffness.
Recent findings suggest that rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease caused by immune system attack on some of the body's cells.The disease usually develops between the ages of 20 to 50 years, and its probability increases with age.Women suffer from it about three times more often than men.Treatment is aimed at reducing pain and inflammation, preventing joint deformity and preservation of their functioning.
1. Hereditary predisposition.
2. Trauma joints.
3. Viral or bacterial lesions.
Symptoms of the disease can be divided into three large groups.
1. Signs of intoxication.
They include swollen lymph nodes, pale skin, fatigue, irritability and a slight rise in body temperature.
2. The signs of joint damage.
• For rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by symmetric joint disease (for example, both right and left hip or knee replacement).
• Subluxations joints in the cervical spine.
• Deformation of the hands and feet.
• Morning stiffness of the joints.
• deepening of voice and swallowing disorder as a result of the defeat of the larynx joints.
3. Skin lesions and internal organs.
• Sores on the skin of the shins.
• Inflammation of the arteries.
• Inflammatory diseases of kidneys, heart, eyes and lungs.
• Rheumatoid nodules - subcutaneous education.
• Early symptoms preceding joint disease: fatigue and weakness;Somewhat elevated temperatures;general feeling of poor health;loss of appetite and weight.
• Red, swollen, painful joints, which may be warm to the touch.With long-term rheumatoid arthritis, the joints can become bent and crooked.
• Stiffness, especially after waking up in the morning (this symptom often appears after repeated exacerbations of the disease).
• Red, painless thickening of the skin, known as rheumatoid nodules on the elbows, knees or toes.
• Chest pain and shortness of breath.
• Dry mouth and dry, painful eyes.
are acute and chronic arthritis.
Symptoms of acute arthritis are similar to the flu or a bad cold.First, much the temperature rises, a person feels a sharp weakness, aches, chills, appetite disappears.Soon inflamed joint: hand, knee or foot swelling, skin on them is red and shiny, joint changes its shape and strongly hurts.Pain is removed with great difficulty even strong analgesics, are known to produce many side effects.
If acute arthritis not cure immediately, it can become chronic.
Chronic arthritis develops gradually, it is characterized by recurrent exacerbations.
As a result, the treatment of movement in the joint can be fully restored;in other cases, arthritis leads to restriction of motion in the joints or their complete immobility.
• Cause of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown.We only know that it is an autoimmune disease in which antibodies are produced to the components of articular tissues.But why there is such a reaction, it is still unclear.
• Genetic factors play a role.
• Outbreaks of rheumatoid arthritis can be caused by emotional stress or other illness.
Among the possible causes of modern science called genetic factors, abnormal intestinal permeability, microorganisms and dietary factors.In general, rheumatoid arthritis - a classic example of a disease which is caused by several internal and external factors.
There is a theory according to the development of rheumatoid arthritis on genetic factors that control the immune response of the body.In favor of it is the fact that people whose parents have suffered severe RA, the disease develops on average four times more likely than others.
But, although this factor is strong enough for the development of the disease a genetic predisposition is not enough.This is shown by studies of identical twins, according to which the RA rarely occurs in both twins.
relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and irregular bowel work can form the basis for a unified theory about the causes of the Armenian origin.It is now established that patients with RA have an increased intestinal permeability.Simply put, their guts tend to "leak."Presumably, the occurrence of increased intestinal permeability RA affects food allergy.
those large food and bacterial molecules that in normal operation are not usually absorbed intestine, absorbed start a result of increased permeability.The body responds to them as well as to molecules that comprise bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells - antibody production.When the antibody is attached to an alien molecule, a so-called immune complex.Then, the body produces substances that deplete the immune complex.Such a protection system works well when the body needs to deal with viruses and bacteria.And with RA destroyed not only the immune complexes that have accumulated in the joint tissues, and tissues themselves.
presence of immune complexes in the tissues of the joints - is one of the most important factors in the development of RA.This factor, called rheumatoid factor (RF), doctors use in monitoring the RA patients, as it is present in the blood of almost all people who suffer from this disease.In addition, as expressed by the Russian Federation in the blood are judged on the severity of the disease.If the level is high, and the disease is more severe, and vice versa if the low level, we can talk about milder forms of the disease.
Some scientists believe that the emergence of some microorganisms responsible RA.The involvement in the suspected occurrence of arthritis and the Epstein-Barr virus, and the amoeba, and mycoplasma, and rubella virus.
Microorganisms, no doubt, have an impact on the development of RA, but none of them can not be considered the sole causative agent of the disease.After all, the presence of a microorganism in all patients failed to prove the RA.
relationship between the way a person eats and RA proved by scientists.They found that RA does not occur in societies whose members eat "gross" food - unprocessed foods, vegetables, low-sugar, meat, refined carbohydrates and saturated fats.Patients with RA should observe a diet that would contain little fat and lots of antioxidant substances.
Almost any food can exacerbate RA, but allergies often cause wheat, corn, milk and other dairy products, beef, plants of the nightshade family (tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, peppers), and artificial food additives.If we exclude from a diet product causing allergies, condition RA patient is much improved.
RA patients has always helped fasting.Fasting decreases the flow of food allergens into the body.Fasting on juices or vegetable broths safer than fasting on water, and often gives the best results.Short-term fasting (lasting 3-5 days) is recommended during acute exacerbations of RA.
few years ago in a specialized hospital in Oslo experiment was carried out for 13 months.Patients were divided into two groups: one (experimental) received therapeutic diet, and the other (control) allowed to eat anything.Experimental group began medical diet with 7-10-day fasting.During this period, the patients ate vegetable soup, broth and parsley potatoes, drink freshly squeezed carrot juice, beet and celery, herbal teas.At the end of therapeutic diet patients in the diet every other day a new product was introduced.If they are then marked increases in pain, stiffness and swelling of the joints for 2-48 hours, the product is excluded from the diet for at least 7 days, then re-introduced.If he again caused deterioration of it finally refused.
According to the study, short-term fasting followed by a vegetarian diet leads to a significant reduction in disease activity in many patients.In the control group of patients most pronounced improvement was observed.The study's authors believe that in the experimental group this effect was achieved by eliminating from the diet of patients food allergens.
• Medical history and physical examination.There is no specific analysis to determine rheumatoid arthritis;continued observation of changes in the joints may be required for definitive diagnosis.
• Blood tests for autoimmune rheumatoid factors;almost half of the patients anemia can be detected, it is detected inflammatory changes, increased urea levels;
• X-rays of the affected joints.
• urinalysis: protein detection;
• Analysis of synovial fluid: cloudy, with a large number of white blood cells and low viscosity.Under local anesthesia of the affected joint synovial fluid taken.
recommended excluded from the diet meat, fat, and should reduce the consumption of high-starch foods.So it's best to begin treatment in the summer, when fruits and vegetables - in great abundance.It is recommended to use fresh unpasteurized milk and dairy products such as sour milk, yogurt.It is recommended to use in the diet of fresh tomatoes, fresh blueberries or cranberries, raw apples, and drink plenty of hot fluids (except coffee) for sweating.In severe cases, running, before starting treatment, the patient is recommended for the effectiveness of 3-6 days to take nothing but warm water (always boiled).At the same time, it should monitor the chair using enemas and laxatives.On an empty stomach at night is recommended enema.Patients should beware of hypothermia and should not be washed with cold water.In the pathology of the cardiovascular system hot baths are contraindicated.
rheumatoid arthritis treatment process is long and complicated.Therapy involves use of the following drugs: glyukokortikosteroily hormones, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent and enzyme, the preparations are used not only inside but also locally.Creams and ointments are effective by NSAIDs.
needed diet with high content of calcium - it is the prevention of complications such as osteoporosis.Currently, increasingly used such treatments as:
• Hemosorption and plasmapheresis, ie, cleaning the blood.
• Cryotherapy - treatment with cold.
• Electrophoresis of medicines.
• Ultraviolet irradiation of the affected joints.
• Switching currents.
• to reduce fever and pain, the physician may prescribe large doses of aspirin, or one of many other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, such as iburrofena, naproxen, nabumetone, salsalate or inhibitors CEC-looksigenazy-2 (a new class of non-prescription anti-inflammatory drugs whichreduce pain and inflammation at lower risk of bleeding or ulcer, which is a common side-effects of other anti-inflammatory drugs sold without a prescription).
• The current trend in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is a more rapid transfer of patients to other, stronger anti-rheumatic drugs, if the initial anti-inflammatory drugs can not cope with the symptoms.
• Because of the potential side effects patients receiving such therapy should be under a doctor's supervision.
• hydroxychloroquine - a drug that is usually given for malaria, it can also be used to ease the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.The effect of the drug is observed not earlier than in three - six months.
• Solutions containing gold salts can be administered orally or by injection to reduce inflammation and pain.
• Methotrexate, antimetabolitichesky drug may be prescribed to control the immune system.If the symptoms persist, you can try to take immunosuppressants.
• sulfasalazine has an effect by suppressing the immune system, which becomes active in rheumatoid arthritis, as well as exerting anti-inflammatory effect.
• Antibiotic Minocycline acts more like an anti-inflammatory agent;it has a moderate effect in patients at early stages of the disease.
• Oral corticosteroids such as prednisone quickly relieve the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.Since the chronic administration of prednisone has strong side effects, it is often given only in case of acute outbreaks or when other treatments are ineffective.The introduction of corticosteroid into the affected joint may also provide relief.
• Who developed the drug for controlling the mechanisms of disease development;perhaps they will be able to prevent joint damage.Recently developed progressive treatments include: leflunomide, immunomodulator, which has antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effect;Etanercept and infliximab, which inhibit tumor necrosis factor - a substance that is produced in excessive amounts in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
• Hot or cold compresses can relieve pain.
• People with rheumatoid arthritis often require more than 10 hours of sleep at night, or in eight-hour sleep at night and a two-hour afternoon nap.
• creams or lotions containing capsaicin, may be used to reduce some pain in the joints.Products that contain camphor, menthol or turpentine, can ease the pain and symptoms of slack.
• Contrary to popular belief, there is no evidence that weakens bee venom or cure rheumatoid arthritis.
• Tires can be used to reduce pain by immobilizing the joints with strong attacks.