Skin cancer symptoms
number of cases skin cancer has increased over the last 10-12 years.Most of the people during the holidays prefer to spend outdoors in the sun.Depletion of the ozone layer may enhance the effect of UV rays on the skin.The number of cases of skin cancer can be reduced by to inform the public about the causes of this disease.
reason for cancer of any organ is in violation of the normal life of its cells.There is a malfunction in the structure of DNA so that the cell begins to divide continuously, and all other processes in it are terminated.This disease can spread from one fabric to another.If the disease spreads, it may turn off mechanism which is able to prevent a permanent cell division.This disease is very dangerous because it can alter the normal body structure, but also because through blood and lymph vessels, it is carried on the remaining parts of the body, starting to grow in vital organs such as the lungs, liver and brain.In the last stages of cancer tumors can block the supply of nutrients an
DNA-damaging agents, known as carcinogens, contribute to the development of cancer (cigarette smoke, certain foods, radiation, certain types of viruses and other factors), have the same strong impact as UVB and UVA sun rays.
Any of the above factors can cause cancer (see the following table).There are two processes preceding the occurrence of cancer: keratosis, which sometimes leads to carcinoma, precancerous melanosis or limited, which may be preceded by the formation of melanoma.Basal cell carcinoma is not precancerous stages.
cancer of basal epithelial cells (basal cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma) - most frequent kind of this disease.However, most cases of skin cancer is predictable in advance and can be cured in the early stages of dermatologists, who can easily identify the disease.
first two are known as non-melanoma skin cancer.
basal cell carcinoma (basal cell carcinoma) is the most aggressive type of cancer that affects the basal layer of the epidermis.The resulting tumor grows slowly, often in the beginning she was very small, it seems that the skin burnt through to the meat, is the build-up the size of a pearl, he often appears on the face, shoulders, or back in the elderly.Over time, it increases starting to take a greater area of the skin that primarily causes problems.Sunlight plays a key role in the formation of this type of cancer, but there are other equally important factors, as not all areas of the skin is constantly exposed to the sun, such as your back or arms.
Moreover, although this type of disease is more common for the elderly, can suffer, and at a young age on it.The main danger of the disease lies in the fact that it actually eats away at the skin, gradually penetrating into the deeper layers of the tissue, as the years progressed, though, fortunately, never spreads to other parts of the body.
solar keratoses (actinic or senile keratoses) is a result of impaired growth of cells that produce keratin in the epidermal layer of the skin, most commonly occurs when the skin is too long exposed to solar effects, primarily the face, ears, back of the hand and the skin of the skullin balding men.
This disease is common for people with a third type of skin or for people with easy blushing skin, aged 60 years and older, mainly those who live in warm, sunny climates.Most often it is a tumor size of less than a centimeter in diameter, reddish or brownish, scaly or hard, unpleasant to the touch;sometimes it is easier to feel than to see.You can stop the spread of the disease before it will grow on the fingers or on the palms - the skin at the place where the tumor began to grow, the more "rough" than usual.Any similar education, suddenly appeared on the skin it can be caused by a solar keratosis.
Solar keratosis is probably the precursor to squamous cell carcinoma, but it is much rarer basal cell carcinoma;Only in very rare cases formed tumors become malignant, and in some cases they disappear even themselves, most often when the contact portion of the skin to the sun minimized.Often, to remove the tumor, there are more drastic methods - conducting cryotherapy or cutting it;also treats various ointments, more is it can learn from.55-56.The main thing - to carry out a course of treatment as early as possible to avoid the risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma.
Squamous skin cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) is the second most common skin cancer;it also affects the cells that produce keratin in the epidermis.Most often it affects people older than 50 years, with "easy blushing" type of skin, which are subject to regular sunlight for a long period of his life, living in a warm climate or working under the sun, or simply relaxing outdoors.In the early stages of a damaged skin portion is reddish or brownish color and is slightly thickened in areas where the skin is more likely exposed to the sun;typically greater swelling and rough than basal skin cancer cells.In most cases the tumor occurs in the form of small spots of irregular shape, sometimes resemble solar keratosis.In any case, if the tumor or other similar type of education does not pass within a few weeks or months, you should consult a doctor.Typically, the tumor simply cut in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma, except when it reaches the last stages of development - when treatment is much more complex.
Malignant melanoma - the most rare type of skin cancer, it affects only 10% of cases of skin cancer.But this is the most dangerous of these diseases - 75% of cases are fatal.
Melanoma - this is the least common but most dangerous form of skin cancer.Unfortunately, frequent cases of melanoma in the past decade.Women, for example, only the number of cases of lung cancer grows more rapidly than melanoma disease.It is the most common cancer in women aged 29 to 34 years.Melanoma develops from melanocytes - cells present in the skin and produces a dark pigment called melanin, which is used to protect the skin from ultraviolet radiation.In individuals with darker skin is produced and a greater amount of melanin in general they have a lower risk of disease with all types of skin cancer, including melanoma, as compared to people with pale skin.There is a direct correlation between the frequency of sunburn (especially repeated sunburn before age 20 years) and cancers of the skin.However, other factors, including the presence of a family history of the disease and the type of skin, are also risk factors.
Melanoma can develop anywhere on the body.The most common sites are periodically exhibited in the sun, such as the trunk and legs.One type of melanoma, however, associated with the constant exposure to the sun, and most often develops on the face and hands.If untreated, melanoma can spread rapidly (metastasize) to other parts of the body.Metastatic melanoma is often fatal, so it is vital to its detection and treatment.
Melanoma can be characterized by an asymmetrical shape;border irregularity;color change;diameter larger than at the end of a pencil eraser.
effect depends on the treatment of the condition is detected.The sooner it was revealed, the more chances to cure it, so it is extremely important to look after themselves, to identify at an early stage of development of a dangerous disease.This type of cancer affects melanocytes, cells located in the basal layer of the epidermis, swelling like a big mole, approximately 6 mm in diameter (the size of the blunt end of a pencil), that irregularly growing and darkening for months.If you have something like -Required consult your doctor.Most melanomas develop from nevi, although moles on the skin are normally harmless.This is a fairly common occurrence, but yet people with easy to burn the skin is not often exposed to the sun.Most often, primary tumors appear on the body (male) and lower (female) in the elderly, they may appear on the face, it is relatively less aggressive form.The latter type of tumor usually develops within months, a few years after the appearance of a growing irregularly, has a nasty dark brown color, the so-called birthmarks, which then become cancerous.
Malignant melanoma can begin to develop at any time, often it starts to grow after 50 years and rarely up to 16 years.Among other things, although this type of cancer is less common in the UK it affects one of 10000-15 000 people each year, making a total of 4000 to 5000, although, of course, this number includes those who are at increased risk.
so-called ABCD system describes the main features of this type of cancer: they change frequently and do not always appear all at once, but after their appearance the disease begins to develop rapidly over several weeks or months.
Most people papules can appear pink or brown color called Spitz nevus, usually occurring during adolescence, but sometimes it happens later in life.Most often, they do not pose any danger, but if you do they are suspect, it is best to consult a doctor.In the early stages of tumor treated, and simply passes without consequences.
reason melanoma is unknown;most likely it is a combination of genetic factors and excessive exposure to the sun.
• Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (sun or from artificial sources such as sunlamps) can cause melanoma.The risk of damage to the skin and the development of melanoma increases with the accumulation of time spent under the UV light.
• Hereditary factors play a role in some forms of melanoma;the presence of a melanoma in the family history also increases the risk.
• People with pale skin, blue or green eyes, red or blond hair are most at risk of skin cancer.However, melanoma can occur in any age or skin color.
• The presence of abnormal moles increases the risk of disease.
• The presence of a large number of moles on the skin is also a risk factor.
• Melanoma can develop in a mole, available from birth.If the mole is very large, it can happen under the age of five years;with small moles that can happen at any time, even in old age.
• The risk of developing melanoma increases with age.
• Any change in the appearance of a mole.These changes include an asymmetrical shape;border irregularity;color change;increase in diameter to a size larger than the eraser on the end of a pencil.
• Flat spot irregular shape or swelling anywhere on the skin.Spot or bloating can be brown, black, blue, red, white or colored;It usually causes no symptoms.Only sometimes it can hurt, itch or bleed.
• Black or brown spots on the iris of the eye, or sclera of the eyeball;change the color of the iris;Gradual loss of vision;pain and redness in the affected eye.
• It is believed that appeared in the recent trend of spending more time in the sun, covering the skin as little as possible, is a factor in increasing the incidence of skin cancer.
• Made of skin biopsy: removes part or all of a suspicious growth on the skin;the fabric is sent to an analysis specialist.
• If suspected melanoma in the eye, the ophthalmologist conducts a full examination of the eye.
• the need for surgery to remove the melanoma (and usually at least half an inch of normal skin around it).In some cases, neighboring lymph nodes to determine whether the melanoma has spread may be removed.
• Chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be used in patients with severe development of the disease in order to prevent the spread of cancer and thus reduce the symptoms (although these treatment methods rarely lead to recovery).
• laser surgery, cryosurgery (in which liquid nitrogen is used to freeze the affected tissue) or radiation therapy can be used to destroy cancerous cells in the eye.
• Make an appointment with a dermatologist if you notice a change in the appearance of moles or the appearance of a new formation.Most of the formations on the skin is safe, but if there is any doubt, a simple skin biopsy can determine the presence or absence of cancer.
• Arrange for regular visits to a dermatologist after the first appearance of melanoma because of the increased likelihood of subsequent manifestations of the disease.
• Have regular examination by a dermatologist if your family has a melanoma cases or if you are a high-risk disease melanoma or other skin cancers.Relatives of people with a high risk of the disease should also undergo regular inspection.
• Visit an ophthalmologist, if you have any symptoms of eye melanoma.
• You must often make skin examination: once every few months for people at low risk of skin cancer;more often for those who belong to the high risk category.The examination stand in front of a mirror and slowly look around the entire surface of the skin, check for changes in existing moles and the appearance of any new lesions or skin spots.Do not neglect the foreseeable difficult areas;This can help you a second mirror.Proper inspection helps in the early diagnosis and treatment.
• Whenever possible, avoid being under direct sunlight between 10.00 and 14.00.
• Protect yourself from the sun, wearing protective clothing such as a hat and long-sleeved shirt.
• Use a sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 15 or higher before going out.Apply it frequently, especially after swimming or excessive sweating.
• Avoid cabs of tanning and UV lamps.
• by example teach children to apply the measures for adequate protection from the sun.Exposure to the sun during childhood and adolescence increases the likelihood of skin damage later.
• Those who have once suffered from melanoma, are at greater risk of recurrence of the disease. For this reason, preventive measures are especially important.
Currently has no doubt that the main cause of cancer is the sun's UV rays.
A - change the appearance of moles.Usually, moles do not change, otherwise they are developing rapidly, and often serves as the initiator of minor damage to the mole, birthmark.IDE, you immediately consult a doctor if you spot continuously changing, especially when it happens quickly.Tumor growth as may darken, its boundaries become wider or losing clarity.
B - Outlines SPOT lubricity.Most often birthmarks have clear and smooth surface contours, unlike melanoma whose boundaries are lubricated shape.The tumor is damaged severely bleeding or itchy for a week or more, in addition, as mentioned earlier, it is continually evolving.
B - COLOR.Average birthmark brown, it has a smooth surface.In contrast, a malignant tumor of a brownish-black color, with the growth of its surface loses its smoothness.It can be as light brown, dark brown as parts, sometimes red or black edges.The color also changes the color for a week or a month.
T - DIAMETER.Normal moles in diameter does not exceed the size of the ground off pencil;