Remember the biblical legend of the creation of man: on the sixth day of creation, God made man from the dust of the ground and breathed in his face breath of life and man became a living soul.
Earthly human life begins with the first breath, the lungs fill with air, are set in motion internal organs tissue, and people connected to the world of living beings.He breathed his last - say about a deceased person, the first and last breath - this is the beginning and end: the breath without doubt the foundation of life."Breath", "spiritual", "inspiration" - all these words come from the same root and meaning.Note the appearance of the light - it looks like an inverted tree: the trunk, branches, leaves.Our bronchopulmonary apparatus is similar to the tree of life.And the roots of life to be found in the respiratory system.But this system is affected, and in the first place.
Asthma - chronic allergic relapsing disease with a primary lesion of the respiratory tract caused by chronic hyperreactivity or airway
characterized by altered reactivity of the bronchi, the air enters the lungs and borate yield a loss, it becomes difficult to breathe.
«Asthma» (astma) in Greek means "choking" or "heavy breathing".The mention of this disease is found in Hippocrates, Galen, Celsus.The Ebers Papyrus describes allergic asthma at the Roman emperors (Augustus and Claudius).How to use folk remedies in this illness, see here.
In some people there is a cough, while others - a whistle, whistling sound that occurs when air is pushed through the too narrow opening of the bronchial tubes, some people just feel the lack of air.The air trapped in the air sacs (alveoli), is in a "trap".Respiratory Motion (inhaling and exhaling) are short, frequent, irregular.
• Common symptoms include: sudden shortness of breath, wheezing, rapid shallow breathing, which is easier when sitting upright, feeling of suffocation;painless embossing in the chest;cough, possibly with the release of a thick, clear or yellow sputum (symptoms in young children may be similar to symptoms of the viral disease).
• More severe symptoms include the inability to say a few words without difficulty breathing;spasm of the neck muscles;rapid pulse;sweating;strong concern.
• symptom exacerbation: a blue plaque on the face or lips;extremely difficult breathing;confusion;strong sense of fatigue.
Characteristic features are:
• dry cough;
• choking sensation.Characterized by attacks of breathlessness in history;
• expiratory dyspnea (difficulty inhaling);
• wheezing when breathing;
• shortness of breath;
• forced position (sitting forward lean body);
• forced position;
• cyanotic color of the face;
• jugular vein;
• possible previous change in the general state of weakness, the appearance of the itch sensation in the nose, a feeling of stillness, a violation of the chest excursions.
The disease often begins paroxysmal cough, expiratory dyspnea accompanied with discharge of a small amount of vitreous sputum (asthmatic bronchitis).Expanded picture bronchial asthma is characterized by the appearance of mild and moderate or severe asthma attacks.The attack may begin harbinger (copious watery secretions from the nose, sneezing, paroxysmal cough, and so on. N.).An asthma attack is characterized accompanied by audible at a distance of wheezing, chest pulled out of whistling sounds.The chest is at maximum inhalation.
1. Compression of the bronchi.
Bronchial tubes are surrounded by a thin muscles.When inhaled air containing irritants, these muscles contract and compress the bronchi.The air will not be able to pass freely over them into the lungs.So they do not get enough fresh air and do not have to give your body the unnecessary exhaust air with carbon dioxide.
2. bronchi filled with mucus.
Bronchial tubes inside are lined with mucosa, which have cells that produce mucus.In a healthy person the mucus keeps the airways moist.In bronchial asthma when released into the bronchi to allergens (substances that cause an asthma attack) mucus is produced more than is necessary, it closes the lumen of the bronchi and even more difficult to breath.
3. Swelling of bronchial walls.
bronchial tubes become inflamed from irritation.They increase in size, thicken as well as a damaged finger swells when it hurt.The thickening of the inner lining leads to a further narrowing of the lumen of the bronchi and the air hardly passes through the bronchi during inhalation and exhalation.The more constricted bronchi, the harder to breathe.
the end of the episode, after about 1 hour, starts coughing, and separated a small amount of glassy viscous sputum.
This disease changes the structure of the bronchi, impaired function of the cilia of ciliated epithelium, bronchial epithelium is destroyed.Microcirculation failure occurs in the walls of the bronchi resulting in sclerosis.The inflammatory process involved in the bronchi and mast cells containing active substances (histamine, bradykinin, kalidin, serotonin and others.).
Because of all these changes is formed bronchial spasm syndrome.In the mechanism of bronchospasm serves as bronchoconstriction, bronchial mucosa edema, disturbance slizeobrazovaniya and sclerotic changes.A huge role in the formation of this syndrome plays a hyperreactivity of the bronchi, ie,increased reaction to the impact of a wide variety of stimuli.bronchospasm universal reaction, ie,stimuli may be different, but the reaction of the bronchi - the same.Bronchial asthma is different because of the appearance and severity.So far there is no uniform world classification of asthma.
On Asthma severity is divided into mild, moderate and severe.When mild usually no classic deployed asthma.Signs of bronchospasm observed not more than 1 - 2 times a week, and are short-lived.From respiratory discomfort at night, patients wake up less than 1 - 2 times a month.In the interictal period the condition of these patients is stable.In moderate form of asthma attacks are more than 1 - 2 times a week.Seizures as bronchial asthma at night there are more than 2 times per month.Medication is necessary even in the interictal period.
In severe asthma, frequent exacerbation.Moreover, they can be dangerous to human life.Seizures are protracted, occur even at night.Symptoms of bronchial spasms are stored in the interictal period.Seizures occur from time to time even in a person who lives in the same place and maintain a constant way of life.The disease is recurrent in nature, ie,It tends to deteriorate regularly.
attacks, combined with periods of prosperity, are the hallmark of this disease.
• Use of the inhaler, which is commonly available in patients with bronchial asthma;
• exemption of tightening of details of clothes;
• provision of fresh air;
• subcutaneous administration of a 0.1% solution of adrenaline once no more than 0.2-0.3 ml.During repeated administration, the amount of the injected solution, it is desirable not to increase, change the injection site (due to spasm of blood vessels in the area of injection drug absorption will be worse);
• subcutaneous injection of atropine solution when observed bradycardia;
• introduction of aminophylline solution of 10 mL of 2.4% solution intravenously slowly;
• glucocorticoids on the testimony;
• on the testimony of the introduction of cardiac glycosides;
• drugs with a diuretic effect: Lasix intravenously 2-4 ml of furosemide - inside 40 mg;
• desensitizing agents, especially in the case of prolonged attack and by using a large amount of drugs;
• divert funds;
• call the brigade "first aid" and the hospitalization of the patient in the hospital.
on the development of asthma is influenced by both external and internal factors.That is, should take into account the impact of the environment, and especially of the body (in particular, the state of the immune and endocrine systems).Since the main and indispensable feature of the disease is asthma attacks, consider what can trigger their appearance.As a rule, it is:
1) non-communicable (also called atopic) allergens contained in dust, pollen, as well as manufacturing, food (eggs, chocolate, mushrooms, strawberries, citrus fruits), allergens, wardrobes mites waste products, insects, allergens contained in the fur of animals, fish scales, and, of course, drug allergies (eg, it is known that the "harmless" aspirin often causes an acute attack of asthma in patients with allergies);
2) infectious allergens (bacteria and viruses affecting the respiratory tract, as well as the ubiquitous fungi and mycoplasma);eczema or hay fever.
3) mechanical and chemical influences (acid vapors, alkalis, inorganic dust);
4) intense physical activity and meteorological factors (changes in temperature and humidity, atmospheric pressure variations and magnetic field of the Earth);causes of asthma attacks are cold or dry air, cigarette smoke, air pollution, bronchitis and other lung infections, severe exercise
5) emotional stress or excitement.
6) Although asthma is mainly caused by allergy to foreign substances (allergens) or irritants under certain types of asthma may not be detected by any external pathogens.
7) Predisposition to asthma can be hereditary.
Bronchial asthma is one of the most common respiratory diseases in pregnant women.This disease develops in response to exposure to an allergen to the body, and is characterized by a temporary violation of the airway, which is manifested attacks of breathlessness.
Allergens may include: pollen, house dust, feathers, animal dander, foods, drugs, household chemicals.The microorganisms that cause respiratory infections: pneumonia, pharyngitis, bronchitis, sore throat - are also allergens.
Usually asthma begins to childbearing, but may first appear, and during it.In some cases, asthma that began early in the pregnancy, it runs in the third trimester.
Currently, this disease is not a contraindication for those wishing to have a child, because it is possible with the help of drugs to carry out correction of the state of the patient at all stages of pregnancy.
During the period of gestation in a state of some patients with asthma, even improvement may occur in others, on the contrary, the disease gets worse.Predict the deterioration can not be, it can occur suddenly at any time during pregnancy and at childbirth.
asthma attacks are usually easy to recognize.It starts with a strong cough without sputum.Then there is the difficulty exhaling, chest tightness, nasal congestion.To facilitate breathing woman takes a forced situation: sitting on the bed lowered legs, leaning his hands on his knees.Muscles tense, noisy breathing, a rattling, wheezing.A person acquires a bluish tint.The attack ends with sputum.
During an attack the patient in need of emergency assistance.For this purpose, various medications are used with respect to their impact on the fetus.Safety of a drug for the unborn child can identify only a doctor.The major importance in the treatment of agonists are drugs group, xanthine derivatives, anti-inflammatory drugs: Intal, glyukokorti-Koidu.
patients with bronchial asthma during pregnancy should be followed up by a physician antenatal clinic.Each catarrhal disease in these patients should be treated by a complex of measures, including antimicrobials.Each exacerbation of the disease hospitalization in the hospital.
In the absence of diseases of other organs, patients with bronchial asthma obychPo give birth vaginally.At birth conducted activities aimed at the prevention of attacks of.With frequent attacks and lower the effect of the treatment assigned to early delivery period of 37-38 weeks.
If an older child chronic asthma, it causes the substance floating in the air, such as particles of horse manure, dog hair, mold, etc.Allergists call it "inhalants" (inhaled).In young children, asthma may result from food allergies.
child with chronic asthma carefully examined to find, because it responds to any substance, and then subjected to treatment.If this disease is not paying attention, recurrent attacks adversely affect the condition of the lungs and chest.Treatment depends on the cause and different in each individual case.If your child is sensitive to some types of food, it is removed completely from his diet.If the cause of allergies - inhalants, treatment is the same as in the year-round allergies.
Asthma is not just allergic to certain substances.A person can experience an attack at one time and not experience elsewhere, although located in the same place and maintain the same lifestyle.Attacks usually occur at night.In some cases, play a role in part of the year, climate, temperature, physical activity, mental state.Seizures often start after a cold.Some children suffer from asthma attacks (and other allergies), when nervous or upset;their condition improves significantly when troubles over, sometimes with the help of a psychiatrist.In other words, we must not treat asthma, and all children.
individual treatment of asthma attacks depends on how strong attack on the doctor's recommendations and in the individual case.When the child has difficulty breathing, he was given medication or injections.
If your child has an asthma attack for the first time, and you can not contact your doctor, do not panic.Status seldom so dangerous as it sounds.If the child is very difficult to breathe, keep him in bed.If this occurs in the winter and the house has heating, the room should be warm and moist air into it.If your child is coughing heavily, and you have a prescription before his cough medicine, give it.Let will play or read while you go about your business, or read it yourself.If you are anxious to stand next to him, it can frighten him and to strengthen the attack.If the attacks continue, try removing all of the room too much, until contact with the doctor.
predict asthma attacks impossible.If the disease begins at an early age, she quickly stops than if you start later.In some cases, the attacks disappear with puberty.But sometimes the place of asthma in such cases takes hay fever.
• Your doctor will do a physical examination.
• Can be configured on an allergy skin test.A small amount of the intended allergen is introduced directly into the skin.If the skin turns red, starts to itch or swelling occurs, you may experience an allergy to this substance.
• Often require chest x-ray.
• blood tests may be performed.Do not be shy.How?