Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland located at the neck and body control growth and metabolism produces insufficient amount of thyroid hormone, which leads to slowing of metabolic processes in the body.
This condition is caused by long-term, persistent lack of thyroid hormone - found in 19 of the 1,000 women and 1 in 1,000 men.This disease is associated with a decrease in thyroid function.As a result, blood flows insufficient number of hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine), affects many organs and tissues.
Symptoms depend on the degree of thyroid hormone deficiency may develop slowly over many years.When symptoms appear in full, the disease is called myxedema.Although hypothyroidism can occur at any age and in both sexes, it is most common in women over the age of 50 years.The disease can be fully controlled with proper treatment.In rare cases, hypothyroidism is a strong, left untreated, can lead to a coma as a result of myxedema;This life-threatening condition can be accelerated disea
Hypothyroidism that develops in early childhood, and left untreated, leads to mental retardation and dwarfism (cretinism).
In 99% of cases the cause of hypothyroidism is the failure of the thyroid gland (primary hypothyroidism), 1% -porazhenie pituitary or hypothalamus (secondary hypothyroidism).How to cure this disease folk remedies, see here.
Thyroid disease against which can be detected hypothyroidism: endemic goiter, thyroiditis (thyroid inflammation), nodular goiter, multinodular goiter.It can also lead to hypothyroidism: the removal of the thyroid gland, thyroid dose, treatment tireostatikami.Manifestations of the disease at the same time are not significantly different.
This is one of the most common diseases associated with metabolism: according to statistics, every tenth woman of 65 years has featured the initial stage of the disease.
disease can be caused by a malformation of the thyroid gland, can develop due to lack of iodine in the body (see. "Endemic goiter"), and as a result of hereditary disorders (the thyroid gland can not produce normal amounts of hormones and secretes hormones, structurewhich violated and who did not have the desired effect on the body).Sometimes children with congenital hypothyroidism are born to mothers who suffered from diffuse toxic goiter and treated during pregnancy iodine drugs or other drugs that cause decreased thyroid function,
In children hypothyroidism more often congenital, acquired from adults-.For the child's body that plays an important role, as the pregnancy proceeded in the mother: occupational hazards, diseases of the woman, infection, malnutrition, air pollution from industrial plants - all of which can affect the state of the thyroid gland baby.
In adults, hypothyroidism is more likely to occur as a result of iodine deficiency in the environment after an inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland, as well as after surgery for diffuse toxic goiter.Uncontrolled administration of drugs to reduce thyroid function (which is used in diffuse toxic goiter), can also lead to decreased function of the gland - hypothyroidism.Long-term use of radioactive iodine or uncontrolled intake of iodine preparations in some cases also lead to the disease.It plays a role as genetic predisposition and disorders of immunity: there are cases where the patient's body produces antibodies against the body's own tissues, in this case, against the tissues of the thyroid gland.
Rarely hypothyroidism is associated with abnormalities in brain structures.In this case, perhaps his appearance after suffering meningitis and meningoencephalitis (inflammation of the brain and meninges), traumatic brain injury, cancer of the nasopharynx, and so on. D. At the heart of hypothyroidism development are disorders of the organs and tissues of the body, caused by lack of thyroid hormones.Since her hormones affect all types of metabolism, bone growth, oxidative processes in the body, nutrition of brain cells and the nervous system, heart, nutrition, growth and renewal of the skin, hair, dental health, it becomes clear that the manifestations of the disease maybe very diverse.Violated the process of growth and bone formation, reduced oxidation processes throughout the body.Violated and synthesis mechanisms and protein breakdown.Glucose is absorbed in the intestine is worse than in healthy people, which leads to further violations of carbohydrate metabolism.Fats are broken down is not enough.Reduced evaporation of water through the skin, and its absorption from tissue swelling occurs.Despite the fact that the retained bone calcium and phosphorus ions, bones grow properly and become fragile.Mental activity slows down heart muscle is not getting enough nutrients, it becomes weaker.
disease manifestations may be different depending on the severity of the disease.In adults, the disease usually progresses slowly, so patients for a long time did not go to the doctor.In mild form of hypothyroidism is observed a small retardation, reduced mental and physical performance, slow response, fatigue, muscle weakness, swelling of tissues.Patients tend to be more gain weight, become lethargic, slow, phlegmatic, as it were "too quiet".May include the dry skin, brittle hair and nails, dull hair color, decreased hemoglobin.Patients can not tolerate heat and cold, often complain of chilliness.Often goitre.Complaints are more pronounced at moderate form.There have been changes in the coronary vessels, slow heart rate, when examined by a doctor may hear heart murmur.On the part of the skeletal system revealed osteoporosis, fractures often occur on the part of a woman's cycle, hormonal disorders.Men may be a violation of potency and decreased sex drive.Impaired memory and mental activity, weakness and fatigue are more visible.
Hypothyroidism may be accompanied by anemia.It gives the skin a pale, slightly yellowish tint.In hypothyroidism increases in blood cholesterol levels, which may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.
In severe disease developed deep lesions of organs and body systems.profound mental deficiency may appear (cretinism).In another severe form of hypothyroidism is called "myxedema";it usually occurs when untreated congenital gipotreoze children: these children are dramatically lagging behind in growth and mental development;they have swelling, thick skin, dull, brittle hair and distinctive appearance: the language of these children are often placed in the mouth, and a sharp decline in intelligence can be judged by the expression of their faces.These children do not speak often, and do not go, they are delayed or not developed at all the most common motor skills.Such people are usually composed on disability for mental illness.But, fortunately, as severe forms of the disease are rare today.Most people have a much easier, and sometimes-even erased form of the disease.
hypothyroidism is especially dangerous for children: childhood all body functions just installed, and if the thyroid hormone is not enough, there may be profound disturbances in the body, which then will be difficult to fix and restore.In the majority of cases occur in children congenital hypothyroidism.In this case, it is important to suspect the disease from birth, since the outcome depends on the age at which treatment is started.Treatment should start within the first months of life, as soon as possible.If it started in the second year of life, part of the functions (especially speech) can not be restored, and the children will talk bad, difficult to learn, keep in mental development.
Congenital hypothyroidism tend to be suspected in the first 1-3 months after birth, but in any case - up to six months.Most often it occurs in girls.Affected children usually in the neonatal period look healthy, but have increased compared to normal children, body weight.The skin of these children some swelling."Neonatal jaundice" for a long time held to the many kids.In addition, attention is drawn to the rough, deep voice, noisy breathing, tendency to constipation, a big belly, children sleepy, sluggish.Often there are umbilical hernia.Despite a lot of weight at birth, many children have poor appetite, poor weight gain.Most of these children often suffer from SARS.If at this time the disease does not recognize, then to six months revealed a sharper picture.
skin these children become dry, flaky, pale.Noteworthy swelling of the skin.Edema most commonly formed on the face, especially the forehead, eyelids, lips, cheeks.On the hands and feet of elevation in the form of a kind of pads are formed due to swelling.Mimicry face is smoothed, it becomes less expressive eyes - more narrow.Children tend to suffer from overweight, but not due to the accumulation of excess fat in the body, due to swelling of tissues.
In hypothyroidism characteristic changes can be seen by the hair and nails.Nails brittle, grow slowly, the hair is dry, dull, brittle, and often fall over and over.
Children inactive, they observed a reduced muscle tone and muscle weakness.On the change of heart on the part of the children do not usually complain, but they, as adults, are marked slowing heart rate and electrocardiogram filed -ponizhenny voltage peaks.Vocal folds in patients usually thicken, so there is a distinctive deep voice for hypothyroidism.If untreated form of the disease, along with it, generally thicken as tongue and lips, which further modifies the voice and appearance of the child views.Breathing these children are often noisy.
In all patients the slowness of mental reactions, delayed development of motor and mental skills, and the further absence of treatment, - the irreversible destruction of brain cells, after which the full recovery of mental activity impossible.In severe illness-year-olds is almost indistinguishable in its development of the newborn.Subsequently, they start later sit, crawl and walk.Such children have a bad memory, they are particularly difficult to orient themselves in an unfamiliar environment.Most patients with inactive, hardly come into contact, silent, closed, no interest to adults and peers.
bones broken and growth slows.Children have short limbs are formed, relatively long torso.A person who becomes sick characteristic: flat nasal bridge, a short nose, wide-set eyes narrow.On the growth of such patients is significantly behind their peers.Delayed dentition - first milk, and then permanent.There are teeth are usually in the wrong order, fragile, with defective enamel, they are highly susceptible to caries.Delayed pubertal development of children, as well as the physical, and in the further absence of treatment is not only possible violation of ovarian function and formation cycle disorders, but uterine hypoplasia and gonads.From the recorded decrease in blood hemoglobin, increased eosinophils, but pronounced changes in the blood hypothyroidism can not be.
Besides severe manifestations of the disease are also possible complications.Life-threatening complication is hypothyroid coma - it can develop in elderly patients who were not treated.When there is loss of consciousness coma and depression of all the body's organs.Coma can be caused by cooling, trauma, acute infectious and other diseases.If signs of hypothyroid coma should immediately call "ambulance" and take the patient to the hospital!
The main component is the so-called "replacement therapy".Held her thyroid drugs that replace the missing hormones in the body.Used tireodin, tireotom, Thyreocombum and so on. D. As a rule, the treatment is carried out in two stages.In the first step the doctor will eliminate the lack of thyroid hormone, and the second-selects a maintenance dose of the drug, which in the future will allow the patient to feel good.In most cases, treatment of hypothyroidism is held for life, at least over time, the disease symptoms disappear.Some authors recommend starting with small doses, gradually increasing them to a greater;others, on the contrary, immediately prescribe higher doses (until light signs of hyperthyroidism, that is, increased thyroid function), which are then reduced to the right.Children who are not treated in a timely manner, the appointment of drugs can cause aggression, moodiness, pugnacity, increased motor activity.Therefore, these children it is recommended to begin treatment with a slightly lower dose than the rest, and then increase the dose of hormones.When forms of hypothyroidism, associated with impaired brain structures, sometimes not appointed by thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone.
In case of appointment of excessively large doses of drugs may be palpitations, irritability, sweating, itching, diarrhea, vomiting, anxiety, sleep disorders, that is, the signs of hyperthyroidism.In such cases, the dose is reduced.Criteria properly selected dose - no complaints, and the children, and normal growth and development.
Receiving drugs administered once a day - in the morning, the doctor selects the dose individually, depending on the depth of hypothyroidism, the patient's age, state of the cardiovascular system, the presence or absence of other pathology.When properly chosen dose of the drug thyroid-stimulating hormone level is within the normal range.TSH levels checked by 1 every 6-12 months.
But do not be limited to the appointment alone and medication to believe that this is enough.Do not forget about a diet rich in vitamins and minerals, the right time, with the obligatory stroll on fresh air and moderate exercise.Used as massage, physiotherapy, with reduced blood hemoglobin - iron preparations.Unfortunately, in late begun treatment in children is not always possible to achieve a sustained improvement in the nervous system.Many children continue to lag behind in development.In this case, as required sessions with teachers, psychologists, complex rehabilitation, drugs that enhance metabolism in the brain and stimulate the development of the brain.
pathological significance for the development of the fetus have both deployed and subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant options.
Even with normal thyroid tab in the fetus (secrete their hormones the thyroid gland begins to child from 15 weeks of pregnancy) hypothyroxinemia effects in the first half of pregnancy is irreversible.
medikamentozno compensated hypothyroidism is not a contraindication for pregnancy planning.
Due to the fact that the need for thyroxine during pregnancy increases, increase the dose of thyroxine on 50 mg immediately after pregnancy, and continue to expect a dose, focusing on nizkonormalny level of TSH and free T4 levels vysokonormalny.
In the case of hypothyroidism first identified in a woman during pregnancy, immediately appointed a full replacement dose of thyroxine (2.3 g / kg body weight) without a gradual increase, as it is outside of pregnancy.
congenital hypothyroidism can be caused by aplasia or hypoplasia of the thyroid gland in newborns, deficiency of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, as well as the deficiency or excess of iodine during fetal development.The reason may be the action of iodine radionuclides, since 10-12 weeks of fetal development fetal thyroid begins to accumulate iodine.Clinical manifestations of congenital hypothyroidism include greater weight of the newborn;swelling of the hands, feet, face, thick skin;hypothermia;weak sucking reflex;intense weight gain.