Alzheimer's disease symptoms
Alzheimer - this "epidemic of the XXI century", is the result of the degeneration of nerve cells (neurons) in a part of the brain that processes cognitive information.Symptoms usually occur very slowly, worsening over the years and are irreversible.Partly forgetfulness becomes more pronounced;it gets worse;it becomes increasingly difficult to do everyday things: dress, wash and eat.At the final stage, a strong difficulty learning process leads to complete depending on the helpers.On average, patients die within ten years after the onset of the disease, usually from complications such as malnutrition or pneumonia.Alzheimer's disease suffer about 10 percent of people older than 65 years, more than 10 percent between the ages of 75 to 85 and, according to some estimates, more than 50 percent of those over 85 years old.
if you are familiar with the signs of the disease?They are about.The man who would later be called the sick, gradually but inexorably loses his memory, experiencing a sudden there was a fe
In Alzheimer's disease occur atrophic processes in the brain cells.Patients forget to current events, lose their orientation in time and space, often can not remember his name and home address.They are characterized by a complete lack of motivation behavior and pathological desire to leave the house.The disease is progressive in nature: its symptoms grow progressively.If in the beginning, patients retain a critical attitude to his condition, then, with the development of trophic processes in the cerebral cortex, their behavior is absurd, they lose all household skills, their speech becomes meaningless, and the Movement - uncoordinated.
are diverse not only neurodegenerative diseases in general.As it turned out, Alzheimer's disease, too, can not be described in one word, and the same type of varieties of Alzheimer's disease are many and they have already been classified.
First of all, Alzheimer's disease may start in not very old people - to 60 years of age ( "early symptoms"), and in later years - after 65 years of age ( "late onset of symptoms").On the basis of age the disease is classified as follows: early-onset and late-onset;It refers to the beginning of the clinical manifestations of the disease.The cases of early-onset disease has strictly assigned to a family, a hereditary origin, form;late-onset - to sporadic (of unknown origin) form.Familial Alzheimer's disease is associated with a mutation in one of the genes linked with hromosamami 1, 14 or 21, but all of these mutations, taken together, are responsible for a total of 2-5% of the total number of cases.As a result, changes in the corresponding genes under the influence of all kinds and generally unstudied environmental factors differently and, for simplicity, called mutations in the genes violated biochemical reactions, damaged intracellular components, and so badly damaged that the death of nerve cells occurs in the end.
for in vivo diagnosis of Alzheimer's international expert group (.. McKhann et al, 1984; Bourgeois, 1995; Gearing et al, 1995; International Classification of Diseases 10th revision) developed the following criteria:
This implies the simultaneous presence of all thesecriteria, so that the absence of any of them baffling as the neurologist and the patient: no one knows for sure, there is something unpleasant or sick with this he skillfully plays from the patient himself.
Although the disease is incurable, was made possible by the theoretical views of some optimists, dreamers (Nisenzon, 2003), the exact lifetime diagnosis, allowing early and begin treatment to slow the development of symptoms.Why dreamers?Yes, because today, 4 years after the publication of this latter-day Nostradamus legend, not only appeared lifetime diagnosis, but even species it is not, and is not cleared approaches to its development ...
If you have any suggestions about Alzheimer's disease forclinical manifestations can be recommended more complex hardware verification.
main factor of Alzheimer's disease risk is age.After 65 years, the probability of the disease doubles every five years.The second most important risk factor should probably admit being a woman: in Table 1 it can be clearly seen.In general, people with higher education and intellectuals (who labor - only mental) disease risk is substantially lower than the poorly educated members of the population and, more recently belonging to the class of workers and peasants.However, the latter is hardly live till the age when the disease is already developed, and this is probably determined by statistics.
asthma affects the world's population is many times faster than AIDS, and the frequency of deaths is on the fourth place.
What is this disease cruelly robs the person most precious thing God granted him - the memory;disease since the beginning of a long process which begins parting with itself and with the outside world, the disease against which the man is absolutely helpless?The continuous, day-to-day ongoing regression, ruthlessly and mercilessly assimilates adult baby unreasonable, with slurred babbling and with an expression of indescribable bliss on his face fell at the mother's breast.
the first time the disease was discovered in 1906 by German physician named Alois Alzheimer, after whom got its name.It is a severe mental disorder, which leads to the loss of opportunity to think sensibly.In Western civilization, as a result of active changes in living conditions, Alzheimer's disease, or a disease of old age, as it is called, - the fourth frequency disease.In recent years, the demographic structure of the industrialized countries has changed dramatically.The development of medicine and pharmacy, development of new medical technology (surgical, diagnostic, laboratory, rehabilitation), the availability of materials for nursing care, organ transplant technology, high level of hygiene, healthy food, comfortable homes, preventive measures, the elimination of epidemics, human social security withearly childhood to old age - all this contributes to the growth of the population aged and elderly.Since 1972, the number of people who have reached 95 years of increased by 25%.When in 1880 on one octogenarian had 99 young people, by 2030 is expected to be only 15.
As we can see, the dynamics of old people population growth leads to a reduction in the number of taxpayers - of the population, generating wealth, which holds the foundationsany state, including the content and the elderly.Of course, this trend can be compensated for by the intensification of labor productivity, which in turn leads to an increase in operating and replacement of human labor by new technologies.This entails further unemployment and, as a result, the polarization of society and the appearance of it is difficult soluble antagonistic contradictions.
existing psychiatric classification system (International Classification of Diseases) ICD-10 and DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) are useful in establishing the diagnosis of asthma in the case where there are already strong foundation in the form of multiple cognitive damage, leading to visible significant infringementhuman life in everyday life.These samples of psychopathological and psychosocial threshold criteria for determining the so-called syndrome of dementia.
Obviously, between the first clinical signs of AD and the achievement of the so-called dementia threshold is some permanent dynamic process of cognitive decline.
It starts with mild forgetfulness and spreads more other functional region that is ultimately, expression of the impossibility to cope with the difficulties of daily life at this early stage.The clinical picture, which does not reflect the whole complex of symptoms and degrees of severity, the corresponding syndrome of dementia.Dementia today refers to clearly defined categories and more than mild cognitive damage that take place at this stage of the so-called "mild dementia."
criteria ICD-10 and DSM-IV in establishing the diagnosis of asthma suggest the presence of an objective set by many cognitive disorders that lead to the obvious reduction in the level of daily functioning.
Both classification systems treat memory impairment as the main syndrome of asthma.But they differ from each other mainly by the presence of additional signs of cognitive (cognitive) disorders.In contrast to the test criteria of ICD-10, the DSM-IV test considered sufficient disorders in speech, everyday life and in the process of knowledge for evidence of multiple cognitive changes.
degree of dementia can be determined by assessing the ability to lead an independent life.In its mild independent activity although limited, but independence is retained in everyday life.In moderately severe dementia patient is limited in its autonomy and needs outside help in everyday life.In severe dementia independence is completely excluded, the patient in need of constant care and supervision.
Assessment of disease is correct only when taken into account the ability and capacity of the patient, for the emergence and propagation velocity of the destruction of a variety of functions for each patient is different.This assessment is an essential and very important component of the overall examination of the patient and provides the basis for treatment programs and recommendations of relatives.
In a study of patients should be possible to apply standard methods of diagnosis to be able to compare the results of various surveys of patients.Only on the basis of comparative data can get an idea of the speed of propagation of the symptoms and the likelihood of success in the treatment.
These tests are summarized in a standard format, all the information necessary to know to make a diagnosis.
example of such diagnostic interview is to define mental illness in the elderly or in-depth interview for the diagnosis of AD and vascular dementia.
Neuropsychological testing is the most differentiated method of diagnosis.At the heart of some of the tests are normative data for different age groups, so that the results of any patient surveys can be compared with those of the same age, same sex, level of education and so on. D.
This universal, affecting all aspects of the testdoes not exist.All available tests are a compromise solution.In severe functional disorders of conduct neuropsychiatric tests it is not possible in patients.
People of mature age, suffering minor memory impairment and impaired concentration, do not fall into the category of patients with asthma, are, according to today's data science, the so-called group of mild cognitive impairment (MCI - Mild cognitive impairment), very heterogeneous for reasons of occurrence and prognosis.
Many of them there is little senile forgetfulness that does not progress and does not lead to any serious infringement and limitations in everyday life.A considerable part be suspected preclinical stage of AD, which is a rate of 15% per year leading to dementia.
difference between progressive and non-progressive form of mild cognitive impairment can be established only through regular periodic inspection.
isolated memory impairment (amnesia), speech (aphasia), perception (agnosia), or organized activities (apraxia) are not specific to dementia with cognitive impairment.Nevertheless, there are rare forms of primary progressive speech disorders which may lead to dementia over time.
have 10-20% of elderly patients with depressive phases can manifest objective cognitive impairment.They affect memory, ability to concentrate, speed of thinking.The degree of such dysfunctions are usually negligible, so that the syndrome diagnostic criteria for dementia them virtually inapplicable.Depressive patients generally do not have ratings below 24 points for the test MMSE (Mini Mental State Examination).
important to distinguish between index between depression with cognitive impairment and depression in the early stages of dementia with accompanying depression is that depressed patients tend to be self-sufficient in their daily lives, and they do not have speech disorders.
For diagnosis of decisive importance is the observation of the patient's behavior and, more importantly, objective observation, not a complaint of the patient, because depressed patients often have a tendency to overestimate their cognitive difficulties, while patients with dementia do not register their.Therefore, doctors long to establish a diagnosis of asthma at my wife, taking the manifestation of symptoms of depression.
BA Identification as a cause of dementia is based on the typical signs of its occurrence, as well as on the exclusion of other possible causes of dementia.However, the technique, in particular positron emission tomography, can improve the reliability level in the diagnosis of, for example, due to the characteristic localization of pathology in certain areas of the brain.
Currently, the most commonly used three operational set of criteria for the diagnosis of AD.
for research at the international level have established themselves diagnostic criteria NINCDS-ADRDA.They facilitate doctors to establish a definitive diagnosis, given all the typical and atypical symptoms of the disease occurrence.
Approximately the same underlying criteria ICD-10, in contrast to the DSM-IV.
None of the existing technological tools does not allow a definitive diagnosis without thorough clinical studies.The only exceptions are genetic tests that establish the cause mutagenic changes in disease.They are used only in limited cases where the dominant role in causing asthma heredity plays.
E4 allele - of the apolipoprotein E gene on chromosome 19 - is on a par with late-life factors are important risk factor for asthma.But for the presence of the diagnosis Allel E4 is not a determining factor.Only the identification of genes in a patient presenilin 1 and 2 genes or amyloid precursor protein has diagnostic value.Image
brain structures by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostics within dementia are mainly for identifying alternative diseases such as brain infarction, hemorrhage, tumors, or impediments to cerebrospinal fluid.
Application photon emission computed tomography SPECT and PET provides the necessary information about the topography of neuronal dysfunction in the brain.Electroencephalographic indicators are less effective for the diagnosis of AD.
In accordance with the topographical spread of neuro-degenerative, atrophic changes in the early clinical stages of the disease are manifested most clearly in the hippocampus of the temporal structures of the brain.