Mastopatia - not always, but in many cases - a benign tumor of the breast.Perhaps the breast would not challenge for the world, if it had not proved that it is - a precancerous condition: it begins with and from developing breast cancer.
In Russia - the incidence correlates with the environmental situation in the city or region.If relatively clean - every tenth woman is sick, if the industrial region briskly - one in seven, and in some places - especially at strong environmental troubles - even every second.How to cure this disease folk remedies, see here.
From one publication to another roams the same excerpt from the public speech of Professor EG Pinhosevicha leading mammalogy, Russia (mammalogy - a branch of medicine that studies the pathology of the breast): "According to statistics, 30 - 40 out of 100 women sufferany disease of the mammary glands.From breast cancer in the United States and Russia is dying about 10% of the female population.The leading cause of death in young women in the US and
In modern classification (1997) breast disease refers to benign proliferative dishormonal-dysplastic processes in the ductal and glandular epithelium of the mammary glands.Translated into ordinary human language this means the following: mastitis nodes in the chest in the surrounding tissue does not grow and did not give rise to metastases (goodness), so in that sense they are safer cancer.But all the other phenomena that are characteristic for cancer, there is: at certain points excretory ducts and / or the gland itself, where the milk is produced, quality cells regenerate (dysplasia) and fall rather quickly (proliferation) - instead of working for its intended purpose.However
expressed proliferation can not be - process sometimes abnormal growths of tissue hyperplasia limited, i.e. an increase in the number of cells so that the iron can operate in mode involving all hands, although it is not currently needed.That's why mastopathy often called "breast disease is pregnant" - because an emergency mode of operation is only needed during breastfeeding.
The word "dishormonal" means that affect hormonal disruptions in the mammary gland.Specifically - the ovaries due to various reasons produce too much estrogen and progesterone are relatively few.But excess estrogen somehow (how - is still not clear) causes breast cells to regenerate and share.That is, the breast develops due to disturbances in the system of regulating the sexual cycle.
In fact, the term "breast" made - him hiding several diseases largely different among themselves and, more importantly, not necessarily turning into cancer.Classification of forms of mastitis, there are many (in medicine does not happen, so that on one issue there was one point of view - they are always a lot, and all claim to be correct).How
arranged breast?Her "elementary particle" called alveoli (not to be confused with pulmonary!) And is a bubble lined with a single layer of glandular cells with excretory ducts.150 - 200 alveoli are combined into a slice, and their ducts merge into intralobular duct;30 - 80 slices form the share with share duct, opening on the nipple.Between the lobes and lobules - Breast frame consisting of connective tissue.
1. diffuse fibrocystic breast disease: pathological process takes place without the formation of knots.In turn, subdivided into the following forms:
a) with a predominance of glandular component (adenosis): expand slices by dividing the glandular cells lining the alveoli.Sprawl is not enclosed in a bag and not clearly demarcated from the surrounding tissue.
Symptoms - breast tenderness, bloating her, worse before menses, seal the entire gland or a portion thereof.Adenosis in young girls at the end of puberty.Sometimes it happens in women in early pregnancy as a transitory state.
On radiographs breast that is affected by adenosine, multiple visible "shadow" of irregular shape with indistinct borders - it is overgrown slices and share.If the process is extensive, shadows can capture the entire gland.
b) With the prevalence of fibrosis: growing frame gland due to abnormal cell division of connective tissue in the space between the slices;at the same time vigorously divided cells lining ducts - so vigorously that last gap narrows or even closes completely.In iron are formed - and clearly be felt if the process has gone a long way - sealing in the form of strands.They are also seen on the X-ray - the latter takes the form, as they say radiologists "frosted glass".
c) With the prevalence of cystic: the mammary gland cysts are formed - bubbles with thick walls and a cavity filled with a liquid or slurry.The typical clinical symptoms, as well as for other forms of mastitis, - pain, worse before menses.
Statistics show that the formation of cysts is most typical for women over 54 years: before menopause (cessation of menstruation), they are found in a quarter of patients with mastopathy, after - 60%.Cysts formed from atrophied (deprived of food) lobules and ducts extended.In parallel, growing and so-called, and interstitial tissue - that in which the thin membrane surrounding the alveoli pass.Sometimes cells begin to divide and the inner lining of the cyst, and they acquire the features of benign tumors.
visible on radiographs krupnopetlisty drawing with a lot of well-defined enlightenment in diameter from 3 mm to 6 cm
Content cysts differently -. From the colostrum, which has a whitish color, to bloody pulp.Approximately a quarter of patients cysts calcined, ie,calcify their walls.Calcination of cysts and their bloody contents are the first signs of a malignant transformation of cancer.
g) mixed form - in fact, with it should begin, because the previous three in pure form are rare.And the most common option - when there is a set of: and adenosis, and fibrosis, and cystic.
2. Nodal fibrocystic breast disease: pathological changes fundamentally the same as that in the diffuse form, but locally, so the iron produced single or multiple sites - typical benign tumor.When probing they usually do not have clear boundaries and are not soldered to the skin.Nodes usually increase on the eve of menstruation and decreased thereafter.
nodular particularly painful, given the pain in the shoulder and shoulder blade, or even in the arm.Sometimes increasing the axillary lymph nodes.
3. mammalgia, she mastalgia disease, not directly related to mastitis, so to speak, who had joined her.Another name - premenstrual breast edema: that increases in volume by 15% or more.Reasons - the stagnation of venous blood and swelling of the connective tissue that separates the iron to share and cloves.
The main contingent of patients with all forms of mastitis - a woman in the prime of life (or, as experts say, of reproductive age) suffering from these or other gynecological disorders: premenstrual syndrome, uterine bleeding, infertility, uterine myoma, endometriosis (when the corpus uteri entered intoother tissues).There is evidence that women, long-term use hormonal contraceptives, breast vstrechetsya rare.
Symptoms of mastitis varied, but chief among them - breast pain is usually aggravated before menses.Components and seals sometimes painful all the time, sometimes only when pressed.pain reason is elementary: where abnormally proliferating tissue, nerves are compressed.
However, 10 - 15% of the patients did not feel any pain, although on examination they are the same disease.Perhaps, then, "blame" endorphins that reduce pain threshold.
Approximately 10% of patients with enlarged axillary lymph nodes;sometimes inverted nipple.This means that if it is not drawn, it is impossible to claim that there is mastitis, but if pulled - one could argue that it is.
And further words: mastitis RISK escalating into cancer is very high.For example, we have shown that women over 45 it is 2.6 times greater than the risk of developing breast cancer in the absence of mastitis, and the presence of atypical changes - 6 times.
not to say that in the arsenal of scientific medicine did not had the means to benign tumors in the breast.After all the talk about global disaster, and if the results are not, then at least he studies the process for the identification and rescue of victims there.
first about treatment.It has long been in scientific medicine has been three approaches to mastitis, based on some of its related facts: firstly, its nodular form - a tumor;secondly, the cause seems to be the excessive production of estrogen;thirdly, estrogen produced by the ovaries.Hence the proposal.Once the tumor - it can be cut.Since estrogens are guilty - they can "pereshibit" hormone antagonists.Once the ovaries are involved - they can be manipulated chemically and "call them to order."
So there were different methods of treatment of mastitis: conservative - non-hormonal and hormonal drugs - and surgical.
Among nonhormonal drug potassium iodide is particularly popular - not so long ago it all mammologists trusted.However, it and still being prescribed to patients - 0.25% solution of a teaspoon per day.Take prescribe it for 8 - 10 months or longer - until ... will not develop breast cancer or not is completely ruined the stomach of the patient, whichever comes first.
meaning of the application of potassium iodide is this: as already mentioned, an excess of estrogen relative to progesterone has an effect on proliferating breast (ie, makes its cells to divide, rather than to fulfill their direct duties) tissue.So, ovaries give too much estrogen.A potassium iodide inhibits estrogenoobrazuyuschuyu ovarian function.Unfortunately, at the same time it inhibits the stomach to full unfitness to bear everyday life.In addition, the most that there could expect - to protect the breast from the new portions of estrogen, the tumor did not grow further, or at least grow more slowly, but it sucked potassium iodide, even theoretically impossible.
also tried to apply camphor, supposedly capable of indirectly affect the production of hormones in the ovaries.Camphor was quite harmless to the body, but it is useless for the treatment of mastitis.
also tried to cling to the fact that 30% of patients impaired liver function - namely, there is bound and neutralized the excess estrogen.The idea to apply hepatotropic drugs (drugs "liver").Synthetic - holenzim and allohol - not helped plant - holosas - almost did not help;Bile teas (herbal fees) acted a little better, but it was not possible to achieve the radical effect.
In 1971 in Ekaterinburg (then Sverdlovsk) was born sensation - a new synthetic drug of mastitis called dimexide.It is fundamentally different from the others in that it is not affected on the ovaries, but directly on the breast tissue.He is credited with a lot of different effects: anti-inflammatory, analgesic, etc., and most importantly - the ability to specifically dissolve the excess fibrous tissue.Up until 1980 lasted Dimexidum clinical trials.They showed ... But first, one explanation.Because the breast has a precancerous condition, medication from her judged by the same criteria as a means of cancer: they are tested for the presence of symptomatic effect (here - the ability to remove the pain and improve the patient's well-being) and oncology (the ability to stop tumor growth and "melt" itie to eliminate the disease itself).So, Dimexidum tests have shown that the effect is symptomatic in 90% of patients with unstable - you need to be treated for the rest of life;Cancer is not marked by any one patient.Hopes dashed.
Hormones always cause suspicion among doctors and patients - which is not surprising, because the hormones act directly on many organs, and only the slightest overdose to develop complications and everything went awry.But the risk associated with the use of hormonal drugs is justified, if they give hope of success in the treatment of deadly diseases or in their prevention.Therefore, when hormones are prescribed mastitis did not hesitate.
Firstly, of course, progesterone.Because, again, the tumor in the breast form and grow due to the shift of balance "estrogen / progesterone" - first produced too much.So let and the second will be a lot: if the balance is restored and disease development falters.A complete cure, as you can see, there is no question at all.Even slowing the growth of tumors is not always observed.
then, women with mastopathy, administered androgens - male sex hormones, because they are estrogen antagonists.It is logical, but again, at best only slow the growth of tumors.A young girls whose puberty has ended only recently, androgens absolutely contraindicated - for obvious reasons.
were equally ineffective and clomiphene (a hormone acting on the hypothalamus, where the sexual cycle regulation centers), and gonadotropin that stimulates the maturation of eggs.In 80-ies were hoping to estrogen-progestin preparations, "inhibiting gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland and the ovaries to create a functional peace" (quote from minzdravovskoy instructions for use), but patients mastopathy they did not help.
It is easy to understand the overall logic of the conservative treatment of mastitis: since there is still cancer chemotherapy should avoid trying to interrupt the division of indirect ways cells.Such efforts have a lasting effect, and sooner or later develop cancer - was already a joke ends and begins the real chemical warfare with the use of cytostatics and tsitolitikov - drugs that kill cancer cells.Rather, cytostatics kill any cells, but if administered exactly at the cancer risk to offend the surrounding tissues, including blood, can sometimes be lower percent to 90.
To give an idea about the prospects of chemotherapy in breast cancer, lead a list of enoughdrugs used 30 years ago, (and show full powerlessness) and used today.So, 60 years - cyclophosphamide, vincristine, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, prednisolone.End 90: cyclophosphamide, vincristine, methotrexate, ftorafur, 5-fluorouracil, prednisone, adriamycin.In other words, do not even onkoloti form as research goes, and still prescribed obviously useless connections!It is characterized by the fact that none of the scientific articles and monographs devoted to the treatment of breast cancer, in the section "Results" mm never encountered the word "recovery" - say only "average survival" for 1.2 and 5 yearsnot longer.
The final method of treatment in the arsenal of modern medicine - surgery.There are two possible tactics, depending on which way the treatment will elect the patient.Having diagnosed mastitis, it can immediately offer to cut knots.If she agrees - in the future it will have to repeat the operation as the discovery of new sites, because relapses are inevitable even in theory (how can you stop the pathological process by periodic removal of its products ?!).If the patient against - it is prescribed conservative treatment and periodically examined for mammography, while not develop cancer.Then she again offered a choice: cytostatics or mastectomy - complete removal of the breast.
Both surgery, as they say, is fraught.Timely detection and excision of nodes in the end nothing.A breast removal does not guarantee a tumor in the other breast - or even elsewhere in the body.It is not possible to talk in detail about the genetics and biochemistry of cancer, why limit ourselves to a single postulate: the mechanism of malignant transformation is fundamentally the same for all tissues and organs.
However, in some extent, the success of the surgery depends on the surgeon's art.