AIDS - a disease that threatens the existence of mankind.The final stage of a fatal infectious disease resulting from infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).The virus, which enters the blood, semen and other body fluids, extends and destroys a specific type of white blood cells, lymphocytes of CD4, which are a major component of the human immune system.The virus is transmitted mainly through sexual contact (homosexual or heterosexual), drug through the needle, and from an infected woman to her child.
After the first contact with the body, the virus spreads within a few weeks, sometimes causing fever, fatigue, sore throat, skin rash and other symptoms similar to those that occur during infection mononucleosis.These symptoms last only one or two weeks.Thereafter, the patient may not experience symptoms for 5-10 years or more, although the virus is constantly spreading, and the person is infected.As the number of CD4 cells destroyed by the virus can appear symptoms such as inflammation of the
AIDS develops when the immune system is damaged very much (when CD4 is less than 200 lymphocytes per microliter) and / or when there are opportunistic diseases, which do not develop in the body with healthy immune systems, or unusual types of cancer (angiomatosis sarcoma orlymphoma).If untreated, death from opportunistic disease occurs quickly.Although no cure for AIDS, new strong HIV drugs significantly reduced the death rate among patients.These drugs reduce the amount of virus in the blood and often increase the number of CD4 cells.Today, AIDS is spread all over the world, it infected more than 30 million people.New AIDS here.
first reports of a new fatal disease appeared in the US in mid-1981.Among young gay men in New York and Los Angeles have been identified 5 cases of an unusual pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis.In addition, the same group of people often met Kaposi's sarcoma - a malignant tumor that young people usually met rarely.The number of patients has been increasing dramatically.The disease was named & lt; AIDS - Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. "
Already in 1983 in France, Luc Montagnier first discovered the causative agent.It was the virus isolated from the enlarged lymph nodes of the patient.Soon after the discovery was confirmed Montagnier American virologist Robert Gallo, who has studied the properties and structure of the virus.The dispute for the championship in the opening between Montagnier and Gallo and their supporters did not subside until now.Obviously, it makes it difficult to award its author the Nobel Prize.
In 1986, the virus was named an HIV (English -. Human immunodeficiency virus), translated into Russian - the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Hence the name - "HIV infection."
in 1982 - 1983.HIV cases have been reported in many regions all over the world.In the same years were studied the structure of the virus, how it is transmitted, the mechanism of the disease, the clinical picture is defined methods of laboratory diagnostics.In 1984 he discovered the antiviral effect of the drug AZT (AZT).
In 1986 in some African countries, has been isolated from the people of another type of virus, called HIV-2 (originally isolated was called HIV-1).
Most scientists believe that HIV infection has occurred, and until 1981, but they have not been diagnosed.
Currently, there are experts who deny the link immunodeficiency (AIDS) with the identified viruses, it applies to them and microbiologist in California, Professor Peter Duesberg: link HIV with AIDS he denies in his book "Inventing the AIDS virus."Around the same opinion is shared by Professor Timothy partisans (Ukraine).
According to most scholars, the place of the original occurrence of HIV infection is the African continent.Many species of African monkeys virus is detected, similar to the human immunodeficiency virus called SIV - simian immunodeficiency virus.
Some scientists suggest the possibility of some changes to the simian virus mutation and its transition to a man 40 - 50 years of XX century.
spread of disease in the 70-ies of XX century contributed to the so-called sexual revolution, which led to an increase in prostitution, homosexuality, group sex species, "take-off" of drug addiction, as well as the ever-increasing migration.
• AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is contained in all body fluids (blood, semen, secretions of the female genital organs, saliva and breast milk) of an infected person.The virus gradually destroys the human immune system, and it becomes vulnerable to many potentially deadly diseases or cancer.
• HIV is transmitted through exchange of fluids between organisms through sexual contact with an infected partner or by ingestion of contaminated blood.This is observed among drug addicts using intravenous drugs and share needles, or among hemophiliacs, who many times are subject to a blood transfusion (recent improvements in blood test reduced the risk of HIV infection through blood transfusions).The infected woman can pass the virus to her baby before birth or during breast-feeding.HIV virus is very unstable and can not survive for long outside the body.It is impossible to catch them after brief contact, such as hugging, a light kiss and drink from the cup of an infected person.
Penetrating into the human immunodeficiency virus affects the immune system, damaging mainly T-lymphocytes - helper cells (in translation from English -. "Assistant"), which help B lymphocytes to produce antibodies against a variety of microbes.
Infiltrating T-lymphocytes and other immune cells, HIV multiplies slowly at first, but after some time the amount becomes so overwhelming that the number of T-helper cells due to the destructive effect of the virus can be reduced by 10 times.This latent or hidden, AIDS period, which has different lengths in different individuals (from a few months to 10 years or more).The reason for the different duration of the latent period of not fully understood until now.Obviously, this affects the virulence (aggressiveness) of the virus, the state of the host organism, first of all - his immune system, the presence of co-morbidities (eg, while infection by viruses of the herpes group of HIV replication in the body faster).
Joining the so-called HIV-associated diseases dramatically accelerates the development of most infections.With the development of AIDS, the body becomes defenseless against many infections, harmless to healthy people.Due to the destruction of T-helper cells in the body occurs a sharp decline in production of protective immunoglobulins (antibodies).At the same time, it increases the number of so-called autoantibodies - antibodies directed against the body's own tissues.Gradually comes complete depletion of cells of the immune system, its paralysis.Progressive viral replication leads finally to the death of almost all of the body's protective mechanisms.In addition to the death of many nervous cells of the immune system cells die.The sharp decline in the protective role of the immune system leads to not only reproduce many parasites, but also to the development of malignant tumors (Kaposi's sarcoma, malignant lymphoma, etc.).
Now - about HIV infection.
1. The sexual way.It may be a conventional (heterosexual) and homosexual.In the latter case, the virus enters the body through a single-layer epithelium of the colon, which is much more dangerous than when passing through the multi-layered vaginal epithelium.In addition, through homosexual contact
quite often happens, a tear of the rectum.Therefore, the probability of infection in normal sexual intercourse with an HIV-infected is several times lower than in the homosexual.
Currently, the proportion of sexual infections in the world accounting for over 80% of the total number of infections, and 70% - as a result of normal heterosexual contacts.Particularly increases the risk of infection in multiple contacts with different partners and group sex.Significantly increases the risk and the phenomenon of prostitution.There are cases where intentionally infected with AIDS as a sign of revenge, challenged with one partner after another, for which they were prosecuted.
probability of infection from women infected men is higher than in the reverse form.When homosexual contacts suffers more passive partner.
often infected in Africa under normal heterosexual intercourse.Homosexual path has been distributed in the US and European countries.
contribute to infection: the presence of inflammatory lesions, ulcers on the genitals, and other sexually transmitted diseases, sexual intercourse during menstruation, etc. The probability of infection dramatically .snizhaet the use of condoms during sexual intercourse..
2. Parenteral infection.Under such infection involve cases where viruses enter directly into the blood: blood transfusions, injections (usually intravenous), etc. The probability of an intravenous parenteral infection by HIV-infected close to 100%...Often the victims of AIDS are adolescents.
3. There are cases of infection of hundreds of hemophiliacs as a result of treatment with medicinal products prepared from human blood that has not been well tested for HIV, and were living with HIV infection.Many people remember about the trial in France in connection with the mass poisoning there hemophiliacs.One can imagine the horror of parents whose child is already very seriously ill and in the hospital instead of receiving assistance to another dangerous disease.
4. There is a certain risk of HIV infection during dental procedures due to a lack of sterile medical instruments.
5. Cases of infection of health workers by careless conduct manipulation (getting infected blood on unprotected skin, mucous membranes, accidental injections and so on. N.).
6. Vertical transmission mechanism.Infection occurs from the HIV-infected mother through the placenta or during childbirth.the transmission probability is increased in subsequent pregnancies (20 - 30% - at first pregnancy, and 50 - 60% - at subsequent).
not exclude the possibility of infection of the newborn from an infected mother during breastfeeding, which in these cases, it is best not to practice at all.VV Pokrovsky described the case of the mother infection in Elista from HIV infected suckling during breastfeeding (mother's nipples were cracked, and the child - ulcerative changes in the mouth).
risk groups for the disease AIDS:
Of these groups, the risk of HIV can be recorded in hospitals, family, etc.
Resistant HIV in the environment is not too high:.. At 25 ° C. The infectivity of the virus is maintained up to 15 daysat 37 ° C - 11 days at room temperature infectious HIV remains in the dried state 4 - 7 days.At sub-zero temperatures it may persist in the environment for several months.
disinfectants are very effective HIV (1 - 3% chloramine solution, 0.5% solution of sodium hypochlorite, 4 - 6% solution of hydrogen peroxide, a 70% alcohol solution and others.).Boiling kills HIV in several, minutes.
is currently no proven that HIV is not transmitted through insect bites.You can not get HIV from casual contact, since the virus is not excreted in the feces, urine, not the sweat, tear fluid is not released during breathing and coughing.Due to the low concentration of the virus in saliva is very likely infected with HIV through kissing.You can not get AIDS when eating together, talking, handshake, public transportation and so on. D. Meanwhile, due to their ignorance, people often shun, shun infected with the AIDS virus.Although we should not treat them with contempt, and with compassion.As the Bible says: "Do not judge and you will not be judged."
diagnose as early as possible, it is necessary first of all to collect information on possible contamination: whether sexual intercourse with an unknown person, is not whether the person is a drug addict, if he transfusions received, has not been subjected whether surgery etc...
Referring to the classification of AIDS, proposed by Russian scientist, professor V. Pokrovsky.According to this disease in its course it has 4 stages:
I stage - incubation. It starts from the moment of infection and continued until the first clinical sign or (in their absence) until specific antibodies in the blood.This stage can last from two weeks to 3 years.
II stage - primary manifestations .In 10 - 50% of cases can be detected in the blood of antibodies to the AIDS virus without whatsoever clinical illness.But in the 50 - 90% of cases at the same time appear and the first clinical signs it - or an acute infection, or generalized lymphadenopathy (the ubiquitous uvelichenie- lymph nodes).Acute infection is usually characterized by the so-called mononucleosis syndrome (or less often influenza-like): fever, weakness, headache, sore throat, especially when swallowing.Often on the body appears punctulate or blotchy rash.Increased submandibular, cervical, sometimes - axillary, inguinal lymph nodes.In some patients there is an increase in liver and spleen.Characterized herpetic or fungal, rashes (as thrush) in the mouth.There may be pain in the muscles and joints.
In many patients, the study of blood already marked a slight decline of T-lymphocyte helper.This stage of the disease rarely lasts more than 2 weeks.Then all the symptoms usually subside without treatment.However, on closer examination it can be seen everywhere swollen lymph nodes, many patients also appear fatigue, poor sleep, night sweats, pustular skin lesions and fungal - nails, aphthous stomatitis.
III stage - secondary diseases. It is characterized by loss of body weight less than 10%, viral, bacterial, fungal lesions of the skin and mucous membranes, herpes zoster (itchy, painful rash along the nerve to the skin of the side surfaces of the chest), frequent sinusitis, pharyngitis.
Subsequently, the patient continues to lose weight, he observed fever (more than one month), long-term diarrhea, changes in the oral mucosa, recurrent symptoms of herpes zoster, localized Kaposi's sarcoma, the symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis.
With the progression of the disease there is a generalized, heavily occurring infectious diseases of viral, bacterial, fungal, parasitic nature - esophageal candidiasis (his fungal infection), extrapulmonary tuberculosis, widespread Kaposi's sarcoma, central nervous system, PCP and other
AIDS-related. (provoked by AIDS) lesions, and cachexia (severe wasting) and other
In case of unfavorable course of the disease and its progression or ineffectiveness of the treatment comes IV stage of the disease - terminal, terminating the patient's death.With modern high-grade treatment more favorable and can not move to the next stage of HIV infection.
For accurate diagnosis of AIDS requires laboratory confirmation.However, no data are available laboratory signs of the disease such that with high probability can be suspected of HIV infection.
so-called "big signs»:
diagnosis of HIV infection is more likely in the presence of at least two large and one small signs.
Between the second and third stage of AIDS in the case of a favorable course of the period may be prolonged (up to 10 years or more) latency when patients retained a satisfactory state of health and performance.In some patients a long latency period, can begin immediately after infection and occur without the presence of acute events.Already there were cases when the latency is longer than 20 years, and scientists hope that it might, in some HIV-infected severe symptoms of the disease do not show up at all.