Syphilis - is a highly contagious bacterial infection of human disease caused by Treponema pallidum (Treponema pallidum).The disease is in most cases sexually transmitted and is characterized by chronic undulating course with periods of exacerbation and long latency periods. Syphilis can be acquired or congenital.Once infection has occurred, the bacteria spread rapidly through the blood stream and lymphatic system and cause a variety of symptoms.If untreated, syphilis goes through three main stages: primary (three to four weeks after infection), secondary (four - eight weeks) and tertiary (from one to 30 years after infection).
skin lesions in primary and secondary syphilis heal spontaneously within a few weeks or months.Secondary and tertiary stages separates latent period during which the patient shows no symptoms and appears healthy.The latent period usually lasts for years and often lifelong.A person infected with syphilis, it is extremely contagious during the primary and secondary stages, but i
If untreated syphilis, which has evolved to the tertiary stage, can cause damage to the heart tissue, brain, spinal cord, eyes and other organs;These injuries can be fatal.Although tertiary symptoms only appear in about 30 percent of patients left without treatment, to the time when these symptoms appear, the destruction of tissue is widely distributed, and antibiotics no longer gives effect.Therefore crucial to early detection and treatment of syphilis.
Classification of syphilis (ICD X, 2007)
• Primary syphilis (three to four weeks after infection): painless ulcer on the penis, vagina, cervix, the rectal area or in the mouth;swollen lymph nodes in the area of the ulcer.
syphilis incubation period lasts from 9 to 90 days.The primary stage of syphilis is characterized by the appearance of spots at the site of penetration of Treponema pallidum.Then, defeat transformed quickly into papules, which subsequently erode and ulcerate.
primary syphiloma (primary chancre) - often single erosion or ulcer, painless, with no signs of inflammation around relatively poorly vascularized, is at the base of cartilaginous density infiltration with clear boundary.Primary syphilophyma often accompanied by a moderate increase in regional lymph nodes;in the case of localization of the primary chancre in the vulva there is a limited increase Bilateral inguinal lymph nodes of moderate density (inguinal lymphadenopathy).
• Secondary syphilis (four - eight weeks after the initial stage): weak fever;headache;sore throat;general feeling of poor health;hair loss;skin rash, especially on the palms and soles;gray powder in his mouth;painless, enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, armpit or groin.
Secondary syphilis is the most contagious stage of the disease and is characterized by a variety of rashes on the skin and mucous membranes.
In secondary syphilis may experience other symptoms: fever, fatigue, headache, and an increase in all groups of lymph nodes.These symptoms may be very mild and, like primary syphiloma with primary syphilis, disappear without treatment.
In secondary syphilis can be observed signs of a lesion of the internal organs and the nervous system.
• Tertiary syphilis (from five to 30 years after infection): loss of balance;loss of control over the bladder;sudden severe pain;loss of touch in the legs, paralysis;erectile dysfunction (impotence);personality changes;Dementy or madness;blindness;symptoms of congestive heart failure due to damage to the aortic valve.
After years of hidden currents in the absence of treatment, the disease can go into its most destructive stage - tertiary syphilis.This may be a lesion of the skin and mucous membranes, which is based on morphological granulomatous inflammation, and clinical manifestations are characterized by rash Bugorkova and gummy.In addition to skin and mucous membranes, can damage the heart, liver, nervous system, musculoskeletal system, which leads to mental disorders, blindness, neurological problems, heart disease and death.Neurosyphilis can occur as asymptomatic, so manifest in the form of a syphilis, tabes dorsalis and progressive paralysis.Cardiovascular syphilis - as mezaortita, which is often asymptomatic and may be complicated by stenosis of the mouths of the coronary arteries, aortic valve insufficiency, aortic aneurysm, mainly rising.
Tertiary syphilis is diagnosed based on a combination of clinical symptoms and the results of serological tests.
When setting a pregnant registration shall be carried out screening for syphilis, which is repeated in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.If a woman was not registered during pregnancy, screened for syphilis is performed during childbirth.Newborns are not discharged from the maternity hospital until you get the result of the analysis for syphilis, especially during antenatal serological status of the mother was doubtful.
As acquired infection, congenital syphilis is subdivided into early and late.
Some children with early congenital syphilis may have clinical manifestations of the disease at birth, but most of them are developed in a period of two weeks to three months after birth.Some newborns may hidden during infection.
Clinical manifestations of early congenital syphilis: skin is wrinkled gray-yellow color with specific rashes, including typical only for congenital syphilis (syphilitic pemphigus, diffuse papular infiltration).Other manifestations of early congenital syphilis are syphilitic osteochondritis Wegener, fever, enlarged liver and spleen, anemia and various malformations.
Later (after 1 year or more), may develop the symptoms of late congenital syphilis, including damage to the bones, teeth, eyes, hearing organ and brain.The signs, pathognomonic for late congenital syphilis include Hutchinson's triad: parenchymal keratitis, specific labyrinthitis (labyrinthine deafness), and Hutchinson's teeth.
• To prevent the spread of syphilis, avoid sexual intercourse during treatment and up until at least the next two inspection does not show any signs of infection.
• Contact your doctor if you or your sexual partner has appeared painless ulcer in the mouth or genital area.
• Consult your doctor if you have had sexual contact with someone who may have syphilis.
• Intramuscular injection of penicillin can cure the primary or secondary syphilis.Other antibiotics are used for those who are allergic to penicillin.Sexual partners should receive the same treatment.
• Use a latex condom during sexual intercourse to reduce the risk of disease transmission.Mutually monogamous relationships are the safest.