Stomach cancer symptoms
Stomach cancer never develops in the healthy soil.Its emergence is always preceded by a variety of disease processes, called precancerous.As shown by many years of experience, diagnosis of gastric cancer, especially its early forms, - a very difficult task for the therapist and for the surgeon.These difficulties are due, above all, extraordinary variety of clinical manifestations of this disease and the lack of expressed specific pattern.
stomach cancer occurs as a result of malignant cell growth in tissues lining the stomach.More than 90 percent of the stomach cancers are adenocarcinomas constitute that emerge from the cells lining the stomach wall;lymphoma range from 3 to 7 percent of the stomach cancers.Adenocarcinomas often cause symptoms only after it grows too large and can not be surgically removed;hence, early detection greatly increases the possibility of timely initiation of treatment.How to treat cancer folk remedies, see here.
• Although the cause of stomach cancer is unknown, a role
• consumption of foods containing nitrates or nitrites (chemicals commonly used as preservatives) may increase the risk of gastric cancer.Salted, pickled, cooked over a fire or smoked products, obviously, constitute the highest risk for developing cancer.Low consumption of fruits and vegetables may also increase the risk of stomach cancer.
• Surgical removal of the stomach (gastrectomy), a chronic inflammation of the tissues lining the stomach (gastritis) or pernicious anemia increases the likelihood of developing stomach cancer.Hereditary factors can play a role.For unknown reasons, stomach cancer is more common in people with blood group A.
• Infection by Helicobacter pylori also causes stomach cancer, especially in those who are infected at a young age.
One type of lymphoma obviously also associated with infection by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.
should be noted that the clinical manifestation of gastric cancer symptoms are not limited to gastric pathology.At the forefront often perform common disorders of the body.They consist primarily of wrongdoing on the part of the protective mechanisms neurohumoral regulation in toxicity and other. The diversity of clinical signs of gastric cancer depends on precancerous background on which they arise, the localization process in the stomach and the macroscopic shape, the stage of diseaseand histological structure of the tumor.All this requires a thoughtful approach to the complaints of the patient and correct assessment of the objective conditions.Particular difficulties are encountered in the so-called masked forms of stomach cancer, often taking place under the guise of other diseases, such as pernicious anemia, angina, pulmonary diseases.Knowledge of the clinic is important in establishing the diagnosis of cancer and especially its early forms.
Localization of gastric cancer .Various departments of the stomach affected with malignant tumors often unequal.It depends on the functional and morphological features of gastric and localization of pathological processes, against which the cancer develops.As they hit the most often antral-pyloric department and a small curvature (gastritis, ulcers and polyps) and malignancies that most often located in these departments.
most common cancer localized in the pyloric part of the stomach and small curvature;it is an average of 74% of all gastric tumors.Only in 26% of cases of cancer affects the rest of the stomach.
Since multiple malignancies override their location can not be set, these forms should be referred to the total defeat of the stomach.
Symptomatology gastric cancer is extremely complex and diverse.All the symptoms of the disease should be divided into two major groups: local and general character.As those and other detected since history.Of course, you must agree with the AV Melnikov, who denies the existence of the so-called latent or asymptomatic cancers, as if the patient goes to a doctor for help, then he has a number of symptoms that he is noticed and the development of which is more or less longwhile watching.
Most often, patients complain of pain.According to most authors, it occurs in 80-86% of patients, and according to AI Sayenko (1968) - in 95.1% of patients.Localized mainly in the epigastric pain is not characteristic of irradiation, such as with peptic ulcer disease, but advanced cancer (during germination in a pancreas, diaphragm, liver) may radiate to the back, right shoulder, heart.The nature of the pain is different.It can occur immediately after eating 2-3 hours after eating or at night;sometimes appear after consuming fatty foods, but most of its occurrence is not linked to the nature of food.There is also no pain frequency, although patients sometimes marked, and improvement in overall condition.A feature of the pain of stomach cancer is that it is, as a rule, there are no sharp and strong, and has a dull and constant.Sometimes the pain is barely perceptible.Patients at this point the feeling of pressure and Propping epigastric.Cases of cancer of the stomach, accompanied by very severe pain such as gastralgicheskoy.The emergence of a strong and persistent pain, particularly radiate to the back, testify to the neglect of the disease, the germination of cancer in the pancreas, retroperitoneal fat.
extremely important symptom that should alert the physician, is to change the nature of pain in a patient suffering from a stomach ulcer.Changing the frequency of pain, its irradiation - is extremely alarming symptoms, especially if they are joined by general weakness, emaciation, loss of appetite, decreased gastric acidity.
patients with gastric cancer often develops dyspeptic syndrome.It is characterized by the appearance of nausea, heartburn, fullness and heaviness in the epigastric region after eating, belching or vomiting eaten food.These symptoms do not always occur simultaneously.It is often possible to identify some of them, but in most cases they are somehow combined.According to several authors, belching occurs in 68% of patients, nausea - at 10,3-20%, heartburn - at 6.3%, vomiting - at 28-48%.
Vomiting can have a different character: eaten food, gastric contents, stagnant gastric contents (in tumor stasis and stenosis), acidic gastric contents (with a significant content of free hydrochloric acid in gastric cancer patients with normal or elevated secretion).Rarely is hematemesis color of coffee grounds or with a dash of red blood or vomit the contents of a putrid, gangrenous smell (a sign of tumor lysis).All these features may be not only diagnostic but also prognostic significance.But most celebrated belching eaten food or air, sometimes with a rotten-egg odor that indicates pyloric stenosis, delayed food in the stomach and ferment it.
often symptoms of stomach cancer are difficulty in passing the dense food, excessive salivation or, conversely, dry mouth, regurgitation just swallowed food.
Thus, all the symptoms of gastric discomfort listed above are quite common.The frequency of their occurrence depends on the macroscopic shape of the tumor, location and stage of the development process.The more advanced forms of the disease, the greater the symptoms and the brighter they appear, although the absolute parallelism between disease duration and severity of symptoms detected does not exist.
Common signs of gastric cancer should be attributed primarily such as general weakness, loss of appetite and weight loss.According to AI Saenko, they are found in 75% of patients with various stages of the process.Very often, the appearance of these symptoms is preceded by a short febrile illness, occurring with low grade fever, with which patients and associated appetite loss.In some cases, patients have an aversion to any food, such as meat, bread and so on. These symptoms may be the first manifestations of the disease.However, in some patients they occur rather late.AV Melnikov considers it appropriate to highlight the triad of symptoms, which he calls the "cancer triad": weight loss, loss of appetite, and stomach discomfort.According to the author, this triad is of great importance in the recognition of gastric cancer.
attaches the utmost importance of early diagnosis of gastric cancer, AI Savitsky believes that in the assessment of disease symptoms should not come from the individual, clearly manifest symptoms characterizing mainly developed, and often neglected forms process, and to take into account a number of small, sometimessubtle, signs.The author calls this set of symptoms "syndrome of small signs."It is characterized by:
1) unmotivated general weakness, fatigue, decreased work capacity;
2) persistent decrease or loss of appetite until aversion to food or certain of its species;
3) gastric discomfort, which is accompanied by a feeling of satiation and fullness in the abdomen or epigastric Propping, slack occurrence of unpleasant pain, often belching eaten food or air, and so on. Etc .;
4) unmotivated progressive weight loss;
5) persistent, gradually increasing anemizatsiey patient;
6) mental depression.
should be noted that such phenomena are observed only in seriously ill patients with generalized process.Therefore, we present the syndrome do not attach much importance.Generally, the identification of small signs and syndromes is important because a substantial portion of patients they appear at an earlier stage of disease.It should be borne in mind that in some cases, clearly expressed picture of disease can ever stay, but small signs still remain.It is most often seen with therapeutic agents that reduce the effects of gastritis, which are always accompanied by stomach cancer.
V X. Vasilenko, releasing latent (painless) forms of cancer of the stomach and forms a painful syndrome, gives small signs of the disease of great importance, especially in cancer differentiation and ulcers.
As already noted, the clinical manifestations of cancer mostly depend on the localization process, the background on which it develops, and the macroscopic structure of the tumor.The most vivid picture of the disease occurs when the pyloric part of the stomach cancer.In this case the fore symptoms such as pain, nausea, heaviness in the epigastrium, feeling of fullness, vomiting or regurgitation of ingested food, weight loss, general weakness.If the tumor captures the gatekeeper and is its stenosis, which occurs most often when Scirrhus and less - ulcerous-infiltrative forms of cancer, besides the above symptoms, there is a sensation of rolling in the epigastric region, profuse vomiting of undigested food, belching rotten.Eventually stenosis phenomena are amplified and become permanent, leading to a sharp depletion of patients.When ulcerative infiltrative and saucer-ulcer forms of cancer most often occurs vomiting with blood due to gastric bleeding.The pain in this case is much stronger than at Scirrhus as tumor ulceration associated infection and the phenomenon of acute gastritis!
In cases where there is no infiltration of pyloric stenosis, and he was constantly yawning, in patients having diarrhea, pain in the epigastric region after eating.These phenomena will soon decrease or disappear.Maybe reflex vomiting, explains short spasm of the gatekeeper.Polypoid tumor can also cause vomiting and severe paroxysmal pain due to a temporary blockage of the pylorus tumor, and sometimes loss of the mucous membrane in the gatekeeper.As a result of tumor ulceration vomit may be more or less strongly stained with blood, but bloody vomit does not happen.
In gastric cancer the body (small curvature, front and rear walls), the clinical picture is very diverse and depends on the shape of the tumor.Most early manifested saucer-ulcerative cancer.The emergence and development of it from the beginning accompanied by pain, occurring both during the meal and after it.The pain may be sharp or dull, but it is constant and does not depend on the time of the meal or on its nature.Due to continuous bleeding and intoxication is increasing anemia, general weakness, exhaustion, fatigue.Vomiting is usually absent, but if it happens, it is always colored vomit blood.Sometimes, excessive bleeding is observed.Ulcerous-infiltrative form as saucer-ulcer, often accompanied by severe pain sometimes radiates to the back.As a result of the collapse of the tumor, infection joining, acute gastritis, and often lymphadenitis in patients with increased body temperature to subfebrile.However, tumor, located in the stomach, may be latent for a long time to flow, as they do not infiltrate any gatekeeper or esophagus.This is especially true for Scirrhus, developing without ulceration.These patients often have bulimia due to dehiscence pyloric, diarrhea, epigastric pain associated with tumor invasion into adjacent organs.With the development of the tumor growing intoxication.But often scirrhous tumor, exciting the entire stomach from the pylorus to the cardiac part is not accompanied by significant local and general disturbances.The tumor usually shows increasing general weakness, progressive emaciation and diarrhea.
polypoid tumor of the stomach body as scirrhoma, as long manifested by local symptoms.Growing up to large and sometimes enormous size and wounded, they cause pain, regardless of the meal, nausea, vomiting, sometimes with blood.Although the symptoms of intoxication at these forms and insignificant, but to the fore the effects of anemia, protein and water starvation due to prolonged bleeding and permanent abundant loss of protein and fluid.
Equally diverse clinical course of different tumor bed and cardiac portion of the stomach.If they are located on the lesser curvature of the cardiac and ulcerated, there is pain when eating, sometimes very strong, so that patients are afraid there are rapidly depleted.Tumors of the bottom of the stomach for a long time do not appear;Pain observed during germination of the diaphragm, retroperitoneal fat, pancreas or liver.Often, the pain radiates to the area of the heart that leads a physician to a false idea of angina.
tumors, passing to the esophagus, constrictive his cause difficulty passing first a thick, then the semi-liquid food.Such an increase in symptoms is quite common for cardiac tumors of the stomach.At the same time there are more or less severe pain while eating, excessive salivation, regurgitation of ingested not only food, but also liquid.Sometimes patients complain of pain and a feeling of pressure behind the sternum, which is a consequence of the emergence and development of esophagitis esophagus.However, symptoms of dysphagia and pain arise not only due to the transition to the esophagus tumors, but more often as a result of the accompanying these forms of esophagitis cancer.Much less can be observed scirrhoma.Polypoid tumor was detected.Features of tumor localization and macroscopic forms are responsible for the relatively slow increase in symptoms.In patients with slowly evolving depletion and anemizatsiya, but with the development of dysphagia, these symptoms increase rapidly.The main symptom of cancer of the stomach is a cardiac protein and water deprivation, often accompanied by a slight rise in body temperature.
further complicates the clinical picture of gastric cancer with tumor invasion of adjacent organs.The presence of these complications are not always indicative of inoperability, although it is an indicator of neglect of the process.
When the pyloric part of the stomach cancer most often a tumor grows in the pancreas, a large and a small gland in the transverse colon or its mesentery.