Bronchitis - an inflammatory disease of the bronchi with a primary lesion of the mucous membrane.Develops process as a result of viral or bacterial infection -. Influenza, measles, whooping cough, etc.
By frequency of occurrence ranks first among the other respiratory diseases. Bronchitis predominantly affects children and the elderly.Men suffer more often due to occupational hazards and smoking.Bronchitis is more common in persons living in regions and countries with cold and humid climate, in the raw stone room or working on a draft.How to cure this disease folk remedies, see here.
Bronchitis generally divided into primary and secondary.The primary bronchitis include those in which the clinical picture is due to isolated primary bronchi lesion or combined lesions of the nasopharynx, larynx and trachea.Secondary bronchitis is a complication of other diseases - influenza, whooping cough, measles, tuberculosis, chronic nonspecific diseases of lungs, heart and other diseases.Inflammation can be local
are acute and chronic bronchitis.
The acute form is characterized by inflammation of the bronchial mucosa.The most common in young children and the elderly.The disease is accompanied by dry and harsh cough, worse at night.A few days later the cough is usually softened and accompanied by phlegm.
Acute bronchitis usually occurs as a result of infection and occurs against the backdrop of rhinitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis, tracheitis, influenza, catarrh, inflammation of the lungs and allergies.Bronchitis can provoke the weakening of the body due to other illnesses and addiction to alcohol and smoking, hypothermia, prolonged exposure to moisture, high humidity.
forerunners of acute bronchitis are runny nose, sore throat, hoarseness, and sometimes a temporary loss of voice, dry, painful cough.Can increase the temperature, there is a fever, body aches and general weakness.
Acute inflammation of the bronchi may be influenced by many factors - infectious, chemical, physical or allergic.Very often they become ill in the spring and fall, so at this time hypothermia, colds and other diseases reduce the body's resistance.
Acute bronchitis develops when an irritant or infection causes inflammation and swelling of the tissues lining the bronchial tubes, resulting in narrowed air passages.When the cells lining the air passages, irritated by a certain degree, the cilia (hairs sensitive), which typically catch and throw foreign objects, stop working.Then produced an excessive amount of mucus that clogs the air passages and causes the characteristic cough of bronchitis strong.Acute bronchitis is common and usually the symptoms disappear in a few days.
Acute bronchitis can be either primary or secondary.It occurs mainly in catarrh of the upper respiratory tract and flu when the inflammatory process with the nasopharynx, larynx and trachea extended to the bronchi.Acute bronchitis often occurs in patients with lesions of chronic inflammation in the nose and throat - chronic tonsillitis, sinusitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, which are a source of constant sensitization of the organism, changing its immunological reactions.
• The most common cause of acute bronchitis are viral infections (including influenza and the common cold).Bacterial infections can also result in the development of bronchitis.
• irritants such as chemical vapors, dust, smoke and other air pollutants that can cause an attack of bronchitis.
• The risk of severe attacks of bronchitis increase smoking, asthma, poor diet, cold weather, congestive heart failure and chronic lung disease.
In general, acute bronchitis may develop:
• when activated, saprophytic microbes residing in the upper respiratory tract (eg, pneumococcal Frenkel pnevmobatsill Friedlander, streptococci, staphylococci, and others);
• acute infectious diseases - influenza, whooping cough, diphtheria and other infections;
• due to hypothermia, suddenly coming sharp change in body temperature, or by inhalation through the mouth of cold moist air;..
• inhalation of chemical toxic vapors - acids, formalin, xylene, etc.
Most often acute diffuse bronchitis develops under the influence of provoking factors: hypothermia, acute infectious diseases of the upper respiratory tract, exposure to exogenous allergens (allergic bronchitis).Reducing the body's reaction also occurs with fatigue and general exhaustion, especially after suffering trauma, and against the background of serious diseases.
At the beginning of acute bronchitis occur hyperemia (redness, indicating a sharp increase in blood supply) and swelling of the bronchial mucosa with marked hypersecretion of mucus, containing white blood cells and, more rarely, the red blood cells.Then, in more severe cases, develops defeat the bronchial epithelium and the formation of erosions and ulcers, and in some places - the spread of inflammation in the submucosal and muscular layer of the bronchial walls and interstitial tissue (which surrounds the bronchi).
Those who suffer from diseases such as rhinitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, sinusitis, likely to develop acute bronchitis above.Most bronchitis occurs when acute infectious diseases (influenza, measles, whooping cough, typhoid fever).With heightened sensitivity to the protein substance of acute bronchitis may develop if inhaled dust from the animal or plant.
From the first day of the disease prescribe antibiotics and sulfonamides.To remove bronchospasm used aminophylline, ephedrine, izadrin and other bronchodilators.Good effect, especially in the early days of the disease, give banks, mustard, hot foot bath.Soften cough alkaline inhalations, the inhalation of vapor, frequent drinking hot tea, hot milk with "Borjomi" or soda.
When dry, painful cough should apply stoptussin, kodterpin, tusupreks, glaucine (drugs used on doctor's prescription).If sputum coughed hard, give expectorants:. Bromhexine, potassium iodide, "Dr. MOM», etc.
For the treatment of acute bronchitis are used mustard, hot foot bath with mustard, excessive drinking, rubbing the chest inhalation.It is useful to drink syrup of marshmallow root and licorice root tincture.Effective lime tea (available at pharmacies).
In chronic bronchitis changes are observed in all the structural elements of the bronchial wall, also involved in the inflammatory process, and lung tissue.The first symptom of chronic bronchitis is a persistent cough, which stands out a lot of mucus, especially in the morning.As the disease progresses it becomes increasingly difficult to breathe, especially during exercise.Because of the low oxygen levels in the blood skin becomes bluish tint.If acute bronchitis lasts from a few days to a few weeks, the chronic - for months and years.If acute bronchitis is not treated, it can lead to complications - cardiac or respiratory failure, pulmonary emphysema.
Chronic bronchitis may develop as a complication of acute or frequent repetition of acute bronchitis.In chronic bronchitis, inflamed mucous membrane not only, but also the walls of the bronchi themselves, together with the surrounding tissue of the lungs.Therefore, chronic bronchitis, often accompanied pneumosclerosis and emphysema.The main symptom of chronic bronchitis - dry paroxysmal cough, especially frequently appearing in the morning after a night's sleep, as well as in wet and cold weather.When coughing expectorated purulent expectoration greenish.Over time, patients with chronic bronchitis there is shortness of breath, pale skin.May develop heart failure.
common cause of chronic bronchitis is a long, repeated inhalation of irritating dust and fumes.The causes of chronic bronchitis can also be diseases of the nose, chronic inflammation of the paranasal sinuses.Joining the infection worsens chronic bronchitis, causing a transition of the inflammatory process with the mucous membranes of the nose and sinuses in the bronchial walls and peribronchial tissue.Chronic bronchitis can be a result of acute bronchitis.
At the beginning of the disease the main symptom of chronic bronchitis is a cough, worse in cold and damp weather.In most patients, the cough accompanied by phlegm.He attacks occur only in the morning or worried sick all day and even at night.
Among bronchitis symptoms also include fatigue, chest pain and abdominal muscles (caused by frequent cough).The body temperature is usually normal in periods of exacerbation may increase.Hypersensitivity to the microflora protein decomposition products and in patients with chronic bronchitis can lead to bronchial asthma.
the treatment of chronic bronchitis, especially in the early period, it is important to eliminate all irritate the mucous membrane of the bronchi factors: smoking ban, change profession, associated with the inhalation of dust, gases or vapors.It is necessary to carefully examine the nose, sinuses, tonsils, teeth, and so on. E., In which the possible presence of foci of infection, and to conduct appropriate treatment.It is important to ensure the patient to breathe freely through the nose.
Antibiotics administered during periods of flare-ups after determining the sensitivity to them isolated from sputum germs.The duration of antibiotic treatment different - from 1 to 3-4 weeks.
important place in the treatment of occupied sulfonamides, especially in cases of intolerance to antibiotics or the development of fungal diseases.
For the treatment of cough syndrome following groups of drugs used in chronic bronchitis: - mucolytics (contribute to liquefaction of sputum) - acetylcysteine, ambroxol, bromhexine, etc .;
- mukokinetiki (promotes discharge of phlegm) - thermopsis, potassium iodide, "Dr. MOM»;
- mukoregulyatory (mukokinetikov have properties and mucolytics) - erispal, Flui-fort;
- drugs that suppress the cough reflex.Treat bronchitis it is necessary under the supervision of a physician, but the preparations with mustard may contribute to a speedy recovery.
Treatment of the disease is carried out by a doctor.In addition to primary therapy useful compresses, rubbing, teas for better separation of mucus and inhaled, especially prepared on the basis of medicinal plants.
According to the degree of inflammation of the bronchi distinguish catarrhal bronchitis, mucopurulent, purulent, hemorrhagic and fibrotic;on the prevalence of inflammation - focal and diffuse.
• Deep constant cough with a gray, yellowish or green phlegm.
• Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing.
• Chest pain, worse when coughing.
clinical picture. patients early in the disease say soreness in the throat and in the chest, hoarseness, cough, pain in the muscles of the back, extremities, weakness, sweating.The cough is initially dry or with a scanty amount of viscous sputum difficult, it can be rough, sonorous, sometimes "barking" and appears in the form of attacks, painful to the patient.During coughing attacks barely negligible amount of viscous mucous sputum, often "glassy".
On the second or third day of the disease during coughing felt pain behind the breastbone and in places of attachment of the diaphragm to the chest, begins more abundantly released sputum, first mucopurulent, sometimes mixed with streaks of red blood, and then - purely purulent.Further cough gradually decreases, becomes softer, resulting in significant patient feels relief.
body temperature in mild bronchitis is normal or sometimes within a few days increased, but only slightly (low-grade fever).In severe bronchitis within the temperature rises to 38,0-39,5 ° C, and can remain there for several days.The respiration rate is usually not increased in the presence of the fever increased slightly.Only by diffuse lesions of small bronchi and bronchioles there dyspnea: the number of breaths can be increased to 30, and sometimes up to 40 per minute, it is often observed acceleration of heart rate (tachycardia).
When percussion (percussion) chest percussion sound is usually not changed, and only in diffuse inflammation of the bronchial tubes and the bronchioles it gets boxed shade.When listening determined by hard breathing and dry buzzing and (or) wheezing, which can be changed (increased or decreased) after the cough.
During the "Resolution" (subside) inflammation in the bronchi and thinning under the influence of proteolytic enzymes viscous sputum, along with dry wheezing could be heard and wet nezvuchnye wheezing.X-rays did not reveal significant changes;only occasionally observed increased pulmonary pattern in the root zone of the lung.
in the blood can be determined by leukocytosis (9000-11 to 000 in 1 mm) and the acceleration of ESR.
In most cases, the end of the first week disappear clinical signs of disease, and full recovery occurs within two weeks.In the physically disabled disease can last up to 3-4 weeks, and in some cases - the systematic effects of harmful physical factors (smoking, cooling, etc.) - or the absence of timely and competent treatment - take prolonged, chronic course.The worst option is to develop complications such as pneumonia.
• necessary medical history and physical examination.
• Can be performed chest X-ray, sputum and blood tests to detect other lung diseases.
• Take aspirin or ibuprofen to reduce the temperature and relieve pain.
• Take the medicine for a cough suppressant, if you have a constant dry cough.But if you cough up phlegm, cough suppression may lead to the accumulation of mucus in the lungs and cause severe complications.
• Stay in a warm room.Breathe on the ferry, use a humidifier, often take a hot shower to loosen mucus.
• Drink at least eight glasses of water a day to the mucus become less dense and easy to waste.
• If the doctor suspects a bacterial infection, he may prescribe antibiotics.
• Smokers should give up cigarettes.
• See a doctor if symptoms do not subside after 36 or 48 hours, or if repeated attacks of acute bronchitis.
• Contact your doctor if you suffer from pulmonary disease or congestive heart failure and acute bronchitis are experiencing symptoms.
• Consult your doctor if you are fit bronchitis cough blood, you have shortness of breath or fever.
• Do not smoke and avoid second-hand smoke.
• People with a predisposition to the disease should avoid to be there where the air contains irritating particles like dust, and avoid strenuous exercise during those days when the weather is bad.
As we already know, acute bronchitis is one of the manifestations of viral infection with the localization process in the bronchi.Due to the fact that there is an acute bronchitis typically not isolated, but is combined with damage other parts of the respiratory system disease is essentially "dissolved" in the diagnosis of acute respiratory viral infection or pneumonia.Very acute bronchitis share of approximately 50% of all respiratory diseases in children, especially the first years of life.
major pathological factor in the development of acute bronchitis can be almost equally as viral as well as bacterial and mixed infections.