Influenza - a disease that has a viral nature, characterized by symptoms of intoxication, a rapid rise in body temperature to 39-40 ° C, inflammatory changes in the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract.The onset of a new wave of flu in almost every corner of the country is expected with great anxiety.This disease, much to the chagrin undergoes anyone regardless of age, man.Recommended Actions for flu are quite simple and easy to implement, but much here depends on the willingness of the sick person.Influenza is an acute viral disease and is caused by a filterable virus, which has several species.
Flu is dangerous not only in itself, but also its possible complications.Among the most frequent complications of influenza can be called tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, inflammation of the maxillary and frontal sinuses, inflammation of the middle ear.
Severe complication of influenza can be infectious and toxic shock syndrome, symptoms of which are: acute heart failure, pulmonary edema and cerebral ed
He is mysterious, fickle and rebellious.Circulates from November to April, is ready to take us by surprise and is confined to bed.The familiar and the familiar, as almost all of us are closely in touch with him at least once or twice in their lifetime, however, managed to maintain its elusiveness.He is the subject of research and constant care of doctors and economists.
So the flu ... The name comes from the French "GRPPER", ie"Miss", "catch".Flu and had many other names.It was said, as "German, Italian, Russian and French" disease, linking apparently, these names with the countries where the epidemic occurred.During the famous "black" flu pandemic it has been called "Spanish flu".At the end of the last century, it got the name of "influenza", which is in use today.
clinical picture of influenza illness caused by any of these viruses are fairly homogeneous.However, there are some features that depend on the biological characteristics of the causative agent.The causative agent of the disease is parasitic in the epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract and releases in the process of metabolism and destruction of harmful to human toxic substances that contribute to the overall toxicity of the body.It should be noted that the influenza virus in the environment rather quickly dies under the influence of the color of the solar rays on the temperature above 30 ° C, and the action of disinfectants.The influenza virus is able to persist for a long time in the patient's mucus, which he spreads by coughing and sneezing, unfortunately, are often among the surrounding healthy people.The influenza virus has the ability to severe variability of their biological properties.Studies of influenza virus revealed that in the structural elements of its shell periodically subject to change, which contributes to its extreme volatility.Typically, the source of infection is a sick man.It should be noted that it is most contagious during the first days of the disease.When communicating with healthy people when you cough or sneeze it sprays tiny droplets of mucus that contain the flu virus.Once in the respiratory tract of a healthy man in his nose and throat mucus, viruses cause zarazhenie.Gripp spread by airborne droplets, at least - through household items.It should be noted that at the same time with single diseases sometimes occur flu epidemic or even pandemic flu.The generated as a result of suffering a flu immune system is not strong enough.This occurs for the reason that various modifications of the influenza virus, and it promotes reuse influenza disease within one year.
What kind of attack this, the flu? flu virus, viewed under an electron microscope, resembles a chestnut in the shell with spikes."Spikes" are composed of proteins that provide changeability of the virus - the most characteristic feature that distinguishes it from other known viruses.Even slight changes in protein structure enough to the virus appeared in a new form, bringing everyone a lot of trouble.The influenza virus was first isolated in 1933.Since then, the research is being conducted to develop effective defenses against it.But so far they have not brought the desired results.The flu is still out of control.The successes achieved in the field of virology, possible to identify three main groups of virus A, B, C, which, in turn, have sub-groups.A group virus belongs to the most aggressive and is a cause annual epidemics.It affects not only people but also animals and birds.No studies have confirmed the assumption that people can catch flu from the animals, and vice versa - to infect them.The virus group B affects only humans.I called them the flu is milder for, and complications were observed only in children.Epidemics caused by this type of virus, flash only once every 2-3 years.Group C virus causes virtually no signs of disease, so it is extremely difficult to detect.Influenza virus is variable and not only is able to create new forms, but also behaves mysteriously.For example, one of the subtypes circulating in the biosphere for several years, causing widespread illness then disappears to appear after some time in the same or slightly modified form.It is unclear what happens to him for "lack of time".There is speculation that new viruses emerge as a result of antigenic exchange (mutations) between viruses.
Great Hippocrates explained runny nose with influenza occurrence in the brain substance, escaping through the nose.It is from the Greek word "katarrhen", ie"Drain", comes the name of "runny".The point of view of the Greek physician shared a Greek physician of Halle.He argued that released during sneezing clears mucus from the brain disease.Therefore it is not surprising that their disciples and successors sneezing perceived as a sign of recovery.It originates and traditional wish sneezer "Be healthy", although, based on the accumulated knowledge, it would say: "Off with their illness."
In no case do not treat the flu with aspirin, because aspirin promotes bleeding (as we have said, and so the blood is diluted with the flu).Aspirin should be taken not of the flu and colds.Therefore, we must learn to distinguish between them.Influenza begins suddenly and violently.From infection to manifestation of clinical symptoms it takes about two days.At this time, viruses that cause the flu, get on the nasal mucosa and multiply very rapidly.No runny nose or sore throat you may not be.But after a while the person feels a strong fever, begins to split head (pain, mostly in the parietal region), begin to "cut" the eyes, I want to draw the curtains, sore muscles, joints, the temperature rises sharply.A ARD manifest themselves somewhat differently: drip nose, chills, you sneeze, temperature 37,2-37,4 ° C.At the ARD had no heat.Frustrated, the weakness is not so clearly felt like the flu.
The reasons contributing to the flu, are the following: the human body hypothermia, a disease of the upper respiratory tract, the negative impact of pathogenic bacterial flora, located in the nasal cavity, mouth, trachea and bronchial mucosa.All these factors help reduce the overall resilience of the human body and create the conditions for its infection with influenza virus during close contact with sick people.Practically influenza infection is observed not only in cold and wet seasons.This can happen in a warm and dry summer.There is a pattern of occurrence and expansion of influenza epidemics in time.The maximum number of cases observed in 15-20 days from the beginning of the epidemic;Further there is a gradual reduction in sick.The duration of the continuation time of epidemics covers the period from 2 to 2.5 months.There are three main types of influenza virus: A, B and C. Generally, influenza epidemics caused mainly type A, which is most frequently exposed antigenic changes.However, a person who had been ill flu, immune to the kind of virus that caused the disease.However, unfortunately, it is not stored for a long time.Constant and unpredictable variability of influenza virus structure and, consequently, its properties - the most insidious feature of this pathogen.It should be noted that a significant number of people suffering from flu and outside the period of the epidemic, and then subjected to a rather negative consequences of this illness.The disease occurs as follows.The influenza virus enters the body of a healthy person through the upper respiratory tract, thus affecting the mucous membranes of the throat, nose, throat and trachea.He further penetrating the bronchial mucosa, blood begins to circulate.On the human body have harmful effects toxic products allocated to the flu virus.Toxin virus affects the cardiovascular and nervous systems, which contributes to the breakdown of their activities and leads to metabolic disorders.
influenza begins acutely.In the initial stage of the disease occurs chills develop, and then there is a rapid increase in temperature.Temperature for 3-5 hours increased to 38-40 ° C.Deteriorating state of health of the patient;a headache, general weakness, and a feeling of "weakness" in the whole body.There is noise in the ears, dizziness, and dry mouth.Then there are pains in the eyeballs, especially when attempting to withdraw them in the patient's side.There is a reduction in the sense of smell, but exacerbated by audible and visual sensitivity (especially in bright light).Usually, the patient is decreased appetite and delay chair, he becomes very irritable and excitable.During the external examination of the patient revealed watery eyes become shiny.Breathing quickens, broken and heart rate.There has been some reduction in blood pressure.Language of the patient at the time of disease coated with white bloom, and the mucous membrane of the lips are cracked.
In uncomplicated influenza continued febrile period is observed for 2-4 days, but sometimes it may be reduced to one and a half days, or up to 5 days extension.The end of this period is accompanied by a decrease in temperature to normal.In practice, sometimes the situation is as follows: for 2 or 3 day period there is feverish temperature drop to normal.However, after 24-36 hours again going its increase.The total duration of febrile period covers 6-7 days.
Basically there are three forms of uncomplicated influenza: mild, moderate and severe (toxic) form.But along with the typical clinical course of influenza observed atypical and erased form of the disease, but it comes easy for the disease and rapid eradication of pathological symptoms.Yet these patients are also sources of the spread of viral infection and dangerous to others.
In severe form of the disease is observed strongly expressed intoxication.There have damage to the nervous and cardiovascular systems, which for a long time deprived of disability, and sometimes lead to disability.
on the nervous system are mainly toxins - toxic substances formed as a result of vital activity of the virus and cell death, which it strikes.Almost all cases of influenza suffer vegetative parts of the nervous system that manifests itself so characteristic of this infection symptoms such as headache, fever, pain in the eyes that occurs when the movement of the eyeballs, increased sweating, and metagrippal fatigue, weakness that is felt for a long timeafter recovery.Intoxication causes an increase in the permeability of vascular walls, including the brain vessels and thus could cause a hemorrhage in the brain and meninges below.These severe complications are sometimes accompanied by disturbance of consciousness, convulsions, paralysis.In such cases need urgent medical care.
After suffering flu is often a limited inflammation of the meninges - arachnoiditis.It sometimes causes the formation of adhesions between the membranes of the brain, which may disturb the circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid, whereby it is on its way in places stagnates and has a local mechanical action on the brain.Furthermore, this creates favorable conditions for infection.Man complains of a headache, numbness, weakness in the arm or leg, sometimes even appear seizures.
metagrippal arachnoiditis - the result of action on the mater is not so much toxins influenza viruses, many other infections, dormant in the body and activate under the influence of influenza.Usually the perpetrators of this complication are chronic inflammation of the paranasal sinuses (sinusitis, sinusitis), chronic ear infections, bad teeth and other foci of infection in the body.
The flu often suffer and peripheral nerves.Develop neuritis trigeminal, facial, and other sciatic nerve.Most of these complications arise from infringement swollen nerve tissue, and tissue swelling, in turn, is formed by the toxicity and increase in permeability of the vessel walls influenza.In particular, the facial nerve damage is usually caused by an infringement of his swollen tissues surrounding the nerve canal of the temporal bone, swollen lymph nodes in the area of its exit from the temporal bone.This is manifested complication of paralysis of one half, and occasionally both halves of the face and requires a long and hard treatment.How to avoid flu complications affecting the central and peripheral parts of the nervous system and cause severe, sometimes life-threatening condition?Preventive measures can be divided into two groups: strategic and tactical.Tactical measures should be used when the disease has already arisen.The essence of strategic measures - to strengthen the body's defenses, allowing it to successfully resist infection.It - hardening, a proper diet, which excludes such experiments as fasting and non-protein foods, of course, weaken the body.There should also be timely readjustment of foci of infection in the body (carious teeth, inflammation of the ear and sinuses), because they are the trigger for the development of serious complications.
The most typical complications include focal pneumonia, inflammation of the paranasal cavities and frontal sinuses (sinusitis, sinusitis, ethmoiditis).It is noted that different influenza pneumonia severe disease.There is a lot of small focal lesions of the lung tissue, and sometimes it fester in the field of pneumatic chambers.In some patients the development of neuritis of the cranial nerves and brachial plexus, as well as the development of myocarditis and thrombophlebitis in the cardiovascular system.In severe cases, the flu is sometimes observed the development of acute cardiovascular failure.All of the above explains why the flu can cause death, especially in severe cases of the disease.When complications of the disease is an increase in its duration.Most often it occurs in older people if they have a vitamin deficiency and chronic diseases of the liver, kidneys and cardiovascular system.When the disease is possible revitalization of the old and long-stalled pulmonary tuberculosis, as well as other diseases that may be caused by the influenza virus.
If you are able to endure the heat (temperature from 38 to 40 ° C), if you have a normal cardiovascular system, better not to bring down the temperature.Put on the forehead a towel soaked in water and vinegar (half a liter of water and 1 tablespoon of vinegar), it is possible to wet the feet and hands.If the temperature is over 40 ° C, it is necessary to shoot down.When it drops from 40 ° C to normal, so the body cope and people went on the mend.More one recommendation: if you have acute respiratory infections, and even more, the flu, be sure to lie.This is especially true for women, who with a temperature of 39-40 ° C can stand at the stove or clean the apartment.In this situation, the problem is very small and they need not expend its strength.Lie is necessary, at least two days.Take 1 tbsp.Take 1 tbsp.Take 1 tbsp.1 tbsp.