Diabetes Symptoms and signs
Diabetes - an insidious disease for which there is high blood glucose.When digestion carbohydrates and proteins are decomposed into simple sugars and amino acids.The liver converts all the sugars and some amino acids from glucose, which is used as a source of energy in every cell of the body.Glucose in the blood goes from the cells by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas (pear-shaped body located beneath the stomach).Attaching to receptors on the cell surface membrane proteins insulin promotes glucose transport, the depth of the cells to the surface, where they combine with glucose and carry it into the cell.In diabetes mellitus in this process, there are several interference: the production of insulin by the pancreas can be partially or completely disrupted cells or organism may not be able to respond effectively to a normal amount of insulin.
Diabetes - a heterogeneous disease and occurs in two forms: the first type of diabetes or "insulin-dependent" diabetes and Type II diabetes, or "insulin
This type of diabetes develops suddenly and most often occurs in people under the age of 30 years;the average age of onset of its development - between 12 and 14 years.However, the first type of diabetes, only about 5 percent of all diabetes cases.It is much more common in diabetes of the second type, also known as adult diabetes.With this type of diabetes the pancreas insulin production is only slightly reduced, but the cells are not able to effectively respond to insulin, so it is considered as a disease insulin resistance.Type II diabetes usually starts in degree and affects people over the age of 40 years, and especially obese people, a risk factor is age older than 50 years.Occasionally can be observed in adult diabetes first type.
main causes of diabetes are: genetic predisposition, diseases of the pancreas, overeating (read - overloading the same pancreas, liver, and gastrointestinal tract), excessive consumption of simple carbohydrates (sugar, sweets, jams, cakes, chocolate, etc.), animalsfat, alcohol.In some cases, diabetes can occur due to trauma, poisoning or intoxication (including medication).
In both types of diabetes, hyperglycemia leads to release of glucose into the urine, urine is accompanied by an increase in production.If a patient with diabetes of the first type being prescribed the wrong amount of insulin, excessive release of fatty acids from adipose tissue lead to the overproduction of ketone bodies in the liver.The accumulation of ketone bodies can cause a life-threatening condition known as diabetic ketoatsitoz.Diabetic ketoatsitoz may occasionally occur in patients with Type II diabetes in the periods when the body is under severe stress, such as during a severe infectious disease.
People with Type II diabetes are susceptible to other life-threatening diseases, known as hyperosmotic neketonovoe condition characterized by extremely high levels of blood sugar.This disease usually occurs in older people with some other serious illness.The attack diabetic ketoatsitoza or hyperosmotic condition can be the first sign of diabetes.
People with diabetes may also suffer from low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) if they are administered in the treatment of too much insulin.
after 10-20 years of diabetes patients may be complications such as impaired vision, kidney damage and degeneration of the peripheral nervous system (neuropathy).Strict control of blood glucose can delay or prevent the occurrence of these complications.Loss of the sense of touch in the feet can lead to the fact that the damage will be neglected, and infection occurs.
What signs can say that you have diabetes, or indicate that there is a risk of its occurrence?
• Excessive and frequent urination (about one hour).Waking up at night to urinate.The body to get rid of excess sugar, makes it stand out through the kidneys in the urine.
• Extreme thirst or increased need to drink plenty of fluids.It is caused by the fact that the increased level of glucose, which "picks" the fluid from the tissues into the blood, tissues are dehydrated.Therefore, patients have to drink a lot: 2-3-5 liters per day or more.
• Itching of the skin and genital organs.
• Dry mouth.
• Poor zazhivlyaemost wounds.
• First, a lot of weight in a subsequent decrease in it due to malabsorption of food, especially carbohydrates.
• Immunosuppression - frequent infections from the banal flu and colds to pneumonia.
• Sometimes the disease is preceded by "strange" conditions: headache, pallor may result from short-term forced starvation or after intense exertion, break through sweat, general weakness.Once a person has eaten, drank at least a cup of sweet tea, all the symptoms pass quickly.Indirectly, this may indicate a malfunction in the pancreas: insulin in the blood received more than usual, and blood sugar levels dropped below an acceptable level - 3-3.5 units.
• Increased appetite.
• Unintentional weight loss.
• Poor eyesight.
• Fatigue and weakness.
• Frequent or constant bladder infections, skin or gums.
• Numbness and tingling in the hands and feet.
• Signs of hypoglycemia.
• Severe symptoms hyperosmotic neketoznogo state: extreme thirst, lethargy, weakness, confusion, coma.
• Severe symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include nausea and vomiting, shortness of breath, confusion, coma.
described symptoms occur in 40-90% of patients with diabetes long before the diagnosis.But there are "non-diabetic" symptoms, which leads to the emergence of high blood sugar:
1. The emergence and progression of vascular disorders character - the development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, angina, decreased memory (affected vessels of the brain);
2. Diabetic changes fundus vessels (retinopathy), decreased vision;
3. Reduced kidney (nephropathy, pyelonephritis);
4. Diabetic foot ( "foot in the cold burn, and get cool in the heat" - a violation of the blood supply to the lower limbs);
5. Sometimes changing the character (personality disorders);
6. The skin gradually becomes dry, wrinkled palms and soles grubeyut, shelled, nails thicken the hair dry and brittle, thinning in the extremities and disappear entirely, on the skin, due to reduction of general immunity, appear pustular rashes, boils, carbuncles,that relapses often impel the physician to the need to check blood sugar levels in a patient.Often the skin is affected by fungi, eczema, lichen.
7. One of the signs of diabetes is considered to be a defeat of the gums - periodontitis, bleeding gums are blue, and the teeth start to become loose and sometimes painless leaving their rightful places.
8. Diabetes affects and endocrine glands.Men lose interest in women, they not only reduced libido and potency.Women "strays" menstrual cycle, is that monthly disappear altogether.
That is why diabetes is called endocrine-metabolic diseases with damage to the pancreas, characterized by the rise in blood sugar levels and a violation of all types of metabolism in the body.
have diabetes are distinguished: pre-diabetes, latent diabetes and diabetes itself (explicit).Last seen in mild, moderate and severe degrees of severity.
With prediabetes, latent diabetes and mild form of diabetes diet is the only curative factor.And with moderate and severe forms - a prerequisite for successful treatment and to maintain an acceptable quality of life.
In addition, people with diabetes are more prone to narrowing of the coronary arteries and narrowing of the blood vessels supplying the brain and legs.The combination of feet and reducing the blood supply of infectious diseases can lead to gangrene (death of tissue) that requires amputation.
treatment of diabetes first type requires one to four daily insulin injections.(Insulin can not be orally administered because digestive juices destroy it.) Moreover, the need to diet and exercise to blood glucose levels are not too high or too low.For Type II diabetes can be used a combination of diet, exercise and weight loss, although the medicines (including insulin) is also usually needed.Treatment depends on the self-control.Although there is no remedy to cure diabetes, nearly all patients are able to control the symptoms and lead a full life.
• Diabetes of the first type is an autoimmune disease resulting from erroneous attacks immune system cells in the pancreas that produce insulin.
• In diabetes, the second slime important genetic factors.
• Excessive fullness makes people susceptible to the development of Type II diabetes.
• Some medications, such as corticosteroids or diuretics, thiazides may increase the risk of diabetes of the second type.
• Other diseases such as hemochromatosis, chronic pancreatitis, or acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, can lead to diabetes.Surgical removal of the pancreas can also trigger diabetes.
• Pregnant women can develop diabetes, which usually disappears after childbirth.These women are at increased risk of developing Type II diabetes in the future.
• Contrary to popular belief, eating large quantities of sweets is not conducive to the development of diabetes.
General principles of nutrition in diabetes are reduced to simple rules.
caloric intake should be reduced to 2000-2200 kcal by reducing the consumption of simple carbohydrates: sugar, cakes, ice cream, chocolate, candy, jam, pasta, rice, honey and similar products.Black bread, legumes, vegetables and fruits are complex carbohydrates (except bananas, grapes, watermelon), and their consumption is acceptable in normal limits.Useful seafood because they contain highly digestible high-quality protein and minerals, especially zinc - an essential component for the production of insulin.Beans on the content of zinc, so necessary in patients with diabetes mellitus, and copper is a champion among vegetables.Eating beans reduces thirst, and in the presence of concomitant atherosclerosis in violation of the heart rate - restore the normal rhythm!
recommend Eat 3-4 times a day.Between meals, drink water.Limit daily intake of salt and 10 grams, animal and vegetable fats - up to 50 g, as well as reduce the consumption of dairy products high in fat (cheese, ice cream, cream, sour cream), meats, sausages, smoked sprats, chocolate cakes, halva, eggs, brain, egg yolk, giblets and poultry skin.
• To prevent the development of Type II diabetes, you need to lose weight if your weight exceeds the norm by more than 20 percent, and maintain a healthy weight.
• Perform regular exercise.
• There is no known way to prevent diabetes first type.
• People with any type of diabetes should have regular eye examinations for early detection and treatment of diabetes-related eye conditions.
• Medical history and physical examination may give rise to the assumption of the presence of the disease.
• Diagnosis can be made when a blood test on an empty stomach shows high levels of glucose (126 mg / dL or higher) at least twice.
• When the test results are ambiguous, test for glucose tolerance can be made.The patient drinks a beverage containing 75 g of glucose, and then blood glucose is measured every 30 minutes for two hours.
• Can be taken urine tests to determine protein content.
• Measure blood glycohemoglobin;it shows the average blood glucose level over the past two to three months.
For the first type of diabetes:
• the need for daily insulin injections.It requires one to four daily injections to control their blood glucose levels.There are long-acting drugs, and fast-acting, and is often prescribed in combination.
• A strict diet and schedule of meals is needed to maintain proper blood glucose levels.Your doctor may recommend a food is low in fat, salt and cholesterol and can advise to visit a nutritionist for meal planning.
• As and exercise, and insulin lowers glucose levels, exercise performance, and administration of insulin should be so timed that their action is not imposed and do not cause a dangerous decrease in blood sugar (hypoglycemia).
• A rigorous schedule of injections, meals and exercise are necessary for adequate control of the disease.
For Type II diabetes:
• Use low-fat and low-calorie foods, coupled with the correct execution of the exercises is essential to weight control.
• taking oral medications, such as tolbutamide, chlorpropamide, tolazamide, acetohexamide, glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride, repaglinide or meglitonid, may be prescribed to increase the production of insulin by the pancreas, if exercise and diet is not enough lower blood glucose levels.
• Other oral medicines can reduce insulin resistance (metformin, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone) or slow down the absorption of sugars from the intestine (acarbose and miglitol).
• insulin injections may be necessary with strong attacks or Type II diabetes if the patient with Type II diabetes is still any disease.
For both types of diabetes:
• necessary blood tests to measure the levels of glucose, from one to four times a day (depending on the doctor's recommendation).Your doctor will advise you which device can be used at home to measure blood sugar.
• Particular attention should be paid to the possibility of the development of atherosclerosis, since it is often associated with diabetes.People with diabetes should not smoke, should eat foods low in fat, cholesterol and salt and take medication for high blood pressure or high cholesterol.
• People with diabetes should drink plenty of water when they get sick of other diseases such as influenza, to make up the lost fluid and prevent diabetic coma.During his illness people with type diabetes must test the urine for the presence of ketone bodies every four - six hours.
• People with diabetes need to take care of the feet and check them every day.Nerve damage in diabetes reduces the sensitivity of the feet, and small lesions can lead to the development of serious infectious diseases.
• Laser photocoagulation to prevent breaks the tiny blood vessels in the eye may help prevent or treat diabetic retinopathy.Most patients with diabetes need to be checked by an ophthalmologist eye at least once a year, to detect the earliest manifestations of retinopathy.
• Dialysis, artificial blood filtering process, it may be necessary in patients with renal insufficiency.In severe cases may need a kidney transplant,
• To ease the pain in the limbs, may be prescribed amitriptyline, desipramine or nortriptyline, which are commonly used in the treatment of depression, or gabapentin used in convulsions,
• Clear monitoring of blood glucose levelsdelay or prevent subsequent complications that affect the eyes, kidneys and nervous system.