Pancreatitis (from the Greek "pancreas" -podzheludochnaya iron and the suffix "um", indicating inflammation.) - Inflammation of the pancreas.The term has entered the Roman physician Galen in the II century BC: fleshy texture reminiscent of pancreatic soaked meat - hence the "Pan" - the whole, and all the "kreas" - meat.
What is so dangerous this disease and why nowadays a growing number of diseases pancreatitis ?The answer lies in the fact that today we eat too much fatty food and alcohol.And sometimes even a single "bust" of alcohol on the background of fatty foods can lead to acute pancreatitis, which ends in a hospital bed.But most of all is, of course, happens to people abusing alcohol for a long time.
pancreas is often involved in the pathological process in a variety of diseases.And her own illness diagnosed with difficulty, since the body is very deep: Medically speaking, epigastric and right hypochondrium.Nevertheless, there are a number of fairly clearly defined symptoms and indirect signs, w
It can become inflamed after a stomach injury if caught in it volleyball or tennis ball, due to colds, flu and herpes, as well as on the background of appendicitis, gastritis, food allergies, overeating and poor eating habits with a predominance of fat and sweet.If you had a fight with the boss, overworked, or are under stress, chances of getting pancreatitis rise sharply.
If it is not treated properly, acute pancreatitis may become chronic.And in case of violation of insulin from islet cells, as you already know, can develop diabetes, is much less common pancreatic atrophy, its fat necrosis, cysts, sclerosis, abscesses.Unfortunately, in recent years around the world, cases of pancreatic cancer.
Acute pancreatitis - an inflammation of the pancreas, which is based on the process of self-digestion own breast tissue that occur with an increase in breast size, development of edema and necrosis of tissue.Earlier this pathology is rare, but today pancreatitis has already reached the third place among surgical illnesses after appendicitis and cholecystitis.And the chances of each of us to face this disease personally, unfortunately, have increased.Where does this attack and what to do if you rolled a sudden attack?Acute pancreatitis
develops when, for any reason disturbed pancreatic juice outflow and increased pressure in the ducts of the pancreas.In the main part of the patients, including many women approaching retirement age, with overweight, the cause of pancreatitis is gallstones.And men infallible "clockwork key" for pancreatitis is alcohol, which stimulates the gland (despite the fact that the outflow of secretion is disturbed due to edema papilla Vater).
If you "pokusochnichav" day, night overeat fried in lard potatoes, pickled like so salty mushrooms and cucumbers, are fond of fizzy drinks - you can be sure: among other things being equal pancreatitis elect their victim is you.But maybe you prefer to gastritis?He did not leave you with their attention.
fairness it should be noted that not every lover of good drink and a bite to eat is in a hospital bed with an attack of pancreatitis.A role played by genetic predisposition to the disease.It happens that the impetus for the development of pancreatitis is the nerve strain and stress, which causes vasospasm, and the muscles at the outlet of the bile and pancreatic ducts.
Violation of normal outflow of pancreatic juice causes trapped in ducts roundworm, multiple duodenal ulcer disease, small and large intestines (peptic ulcer disease, enteritis, colitis, enterocolitis, diverticulitis, and others.), Accompanied by constipation.Acute pancreatitis may also be caused by physical trauma - a blow to the stomach or fall on his stomach, an unsuccessful surgery or diagnostic procedures in the area of the liver, gallbladder and bile ducts.More recently, there is another reason - self when some fans to undergo treatment, "just in case" uncontrolled use hormonal drugs, furosemide, tetracycline, and many other drugs.
Well, every tenth patient's cause of acute pancreatitis is not possible to find out.Apparently, the law works - where the thin, there and tear.Almost every one of us in the body has its weakest link - a sick body, sometimes even more.And not always depends only on us, it will stand the test of the next weak link in the form of nervous stress, hypothermia, infection and so on.How else to explain that people like and not prone to bad habits and gastronomic excesses, and pancreas, as if in his right mind, suddenly begins to digest itself?
some questions science can not answer.But in recent years, scientists have seriously set to work to find out what is the role of each of the pancreatic enzymes in the development of acute pancreatitis.
Acute pancreatitis - one of the most difficult and diagnosed with the common diseases of the digestive system.Specific therapy is virtually absent;manifestations of the disease are extremely diverse, and immediately put an exact diagnosis is difficult, even with the help of laboratory tests.In addition, the disease is accompanied by a series of complications, life-threatening, and the clinical course and outcome unpredictable.
In medical reference books you can read that acute pancreatitis is characterized by sudden, often encircling the pain in the upper abdomen (epigastric), nausea, repeated vomiting, bloating, blood pressure drop, general weakness.The pain can be so sharp and painful that a person can lose consciousness.However, pain can be paroxysmal, not only, but also durable, give posteriorly in the lower back and under the shoulder blade.
In a fun song medical students there are such words: "Vomiting and stomach ache?So here pancreatitis.What the patient should be done?Cold, hunger and blockade. "Indeed, vomiting and abdominal pain - the main symptoms of pancreatitis.However, vomiting is a symptom not only of acute pancreatitis.For example, appendicitis, cholecystitis (gallbladder inflammation), gastritis may also be vomiting.But if these diseases are different character of pain, localized in the corresponding part of the abdomen.Objectively disease confirmed by an increased content of pancreatic enzymes in the blood or urine.The most accurate of this study says pancreatic elastase.
are the following forms of acute pancreatitis:
interstitial pancreatitis - acute swelling of the pancreas;
pancreatitis - bleeding into the gland tissue;
pancreatic - with areas of dense iron decay;
sharp holetsistopankreatit - a combination of acute cholecystitis and pancreatitis;
purulent pancreatitis - pancreatic lesions of purulent fusion.
Currently all researchers recognized eight major causes of acute pancreatitis.
1. Increased pressure in the biliary tract - biliary hypertension (considered to be the main reason), the basis of which may lie gallbladder disease;often they are accompanied by a spasm of the sphincter of Oddi.Increase in pressure contributes to cholelithiasis.
pancreatitis such origin are called "biliary";it is considered that they account for about 70% of acute pancreatitis.All other pancreatitis referred to as "idiopathic."By "idiopathic" category and include acute pancreatitis of unknown etiology in the elderly.
2. Stagnation in the upper digestive tract (gastritis, duodenitis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcers, duodenostasis) contribute to the failure of the sphincter of Oddi and the face-off intestinal contents, with enzymes in the pancreatic duct.
3. Violation of metabolism, especially lipid metabolism, activates enzymes.No wonder pancreatitis is sometimes called the "gluttons disease" or disease "full life".Interesting fact: during the war, in the siege of Leningrad, there was almost no pancreatitis;They appeared after the break the blockade, and, above all - have procurers and heads of canteens.
4. Disorders of blood circulation in the prostate, ischemia (a lack of supply of tissue) of the body (most often due to atherosclerotic changes, hypertension, diabetes, alcoholism) also led
to the development of acute pancreatitis.Pregnant circulatory disorders may be related to the pressure of the pregnant uterus on the blood vessels.
5. Activation of enzymes also contribute to the food and chemical poisoning - alcohol, acids, phosphorus, drugs (tetracycline, glucocorticosteroid hormones, immunosuppressants, antibiotics, anticoagulants, estrogens, etc..), Worm infestation.
6. General and local infection, especially of the abdominal cavity - biliary tract, hepatitis C and B, mumps (mumps).
7. Injuries of the pancreas - directly in wounds, blunt trauma, as well as operational (the operations in the duodenum, bile ducts) injury can also cause acute pancreatitis.
8. Particularly a lot of supporters in recent years acquired an allergic theory of the origin of acute pancreatitis.It originated on the basis of the fact that many researchers in the serum of patients with acute pancreatitis have discovered antibodies that speaks of self-aggression, that is, the samopozhiranii pancreas.
These are the main reasons contributing to the development of acute pancreatitis.It should be noted that there is often a combination of several of these factors.Sometimes it is even difficult to find out which of them was still basic in causing the disease.
variety of forms of acute pancreatitis is caused not only the variety of reasons, but also a number of other factors.Among them and the individual anatomy of the pancreas, and the nature of power, and general condition of the prostate just before the impact of factors that block its work.
Among the possible complications are especially dangerous peritonitis, pancreatic cyst.Also, do not forget that acute pancreatitis often becomes chronic.
Attention!In acute pancreatitis need urgent hospitalization and possibly surgery.
Acute pancreatitis during pregnancy - not an uncommon phenomenon.The fact that the vascular pregnancy women reconstructed whole organism.Therefore, excessive congestion experienced by all organs and systems of the body (except brain).As a result, it may be because of this, the promotion of secretion through the ducts of the pancreas swelling of the tissues is difficult, which sometimes leads to a spasm of the sphincter and the pancreatic juice begins to flow back.In addition, fruit growing and compresses the pancreas.
In pregnant women, usually occurs stone formation, and is particularly common among many women giving birth.And because they have pancreatitis most often it is the biliary origin (up to 95% of pancreatitis in pregnant women).The second place is occupied in pregnant women "metabolic" pancreatitis, developing as a result of violations of metabolic processes in the body, especially lipid metabolism.
Intensive antibiotic treatment during pregnancy can harm the fetus.However, the grounds for termination of pregnancy with acute pancreatitis, no!Another thing is that in a catastrophic situation, you must first think about the life and health of the mother.Therefore, intensive treatment is performed in full.
Until recently it was believed that children can not be acute pancreatitis.But then, unfortunately, the trend shifted for the worse.Increasingly, our children become ill pancreatitis and the doctors "soon" forced to take away children in hospitals with a diagnosis of "acute pancreatitis".That, however, requires mandatory confirmation after taking all the necessary tests.The most informative and early diagnostic tool - blood chemistry.Signs of acute pancreatitis is increased activity of the enzyme amylase blood.Somewhat later increased amylase activity in urine.
cause of the disease at an early age may have some infectious diseases and allergic conditions, but in most cases the etiological factors remain unclear.The disease often begins with general malaise, non-food and mobile games.Developing then the clinical picture depends on the form of acute pancreatitis.Sometimes an attack of acute pancreatitis can be triggered by physical stress on physical education classes or classes of sports sections.
Acute pancreatitis in young children occurs relatively easily, and symptomatic treatment leads to a rapid improvement in the general condition.But because of the Just noticeable simptomatii correct diagnosis only put a special survey.
In older children, the disease begins with acute abdominal pain, initially spilled, then localized in the upper abdomen or acquiring herpes character.At the same time there are repeated vomiting, excessive salivation.The body temperature is normal or low-grade, tongue moist, moderately coated with white bloom.The skin is pale.When the feeling of the anterior abdominal wall pain does not occur, the abdomen is soft.
of acute pancreatitis in elderly persons often contribute to diseases of the digestive system and especially the biliary tract.Changes in the pancreas are often characterized by massive hemorrhage or fat necrosis.In addition, due to the presence of various comorbidities, even mild forms of acute pancreatitis in the elderly often occur with severe dysfunction of vital organs and systems, which is accompanied by acute cardiovascular, respiratory, renal and hepatic failure, various types of encephalopathies.
treat acute pancreatitis and elderly patients at home is not possible.It is necessary to conduct medical activities in intensive care units or intensive care units;In the complex treatment is required to include cardiovascular and other (on the testimony of the doctor) funds.
main method of diagnosis are laboratory blood tests for diastase and lipase.Fluoroscopy is ineffective, but sometimes makes it possible to clarify the diagnosis.In recent years, we developed a method for the determination of elastase, the most sensitive to detect relapse.Diastase, lipase and elastase - key enzymes (enzymes) of the pancreas.
Equally important is the personal survey of man.There is a connection between the development of an attack of acute pancreatitis and receiving large amounts of fat and meat in combination with alcohol for 1-4 hours before the first symptoms.pain intensity decreases somewhat, if a person sits down, leaning forward.Common
effects such as shock and hypoxia induce pancreatic decay products entering the bloodstream.
Generally speaking, with an attack of acute pancreatitis, people usually fall into the surgical hospital for "emergency" because tolerate the attack often do not have any power.Just imagine that you have started a wild pain "in his stomach," which gives in the left upper quadrant or hoop like squeezes the entire upper half of the body.And such a state lasts for hours.Thus begins vomiting - first, the fact that you have eaten, and then just mucus and bile.At this point any analgesics not get off, and the hand she reaches for the phone.
should know that the main manifestation of acute pancreatitis - an extremely severe pain, often leading to collapse or shock.Continuous severe pain exhausting man, often accompanied by the fear of death.Pain is usually localized in the epigastric region, giving the left costal arch, the left shoulder, the left kidney area.Very often pain are shingles character.
sometimes pain radiating to the right side of the chest or in the right shoulder, which knocks the patient confused and his relatives who are suspected angina, myocardial infarction, renal or biliary colic.