Collect sputum , urine , feces for laboratory examination
Taking sputum. Sputum - abnormal discharge respiratory released when coughing.Sputum examination helps to determine the nature of the pathological process in the respiratory organs, and in some cases to determine its cause.
studies should be carried out on the possibility of fresh sputum, obtained by expectoration morning.When the sputum generally very small, it is collected in a few hours.For special methods of sputum collected for 1-3 days (on prescription).
patient should spit phlegm into the spittoon - a vessel of dark glass with a tight screw cap.Before taking sputum for analysis spittoon should be washed with soap and water, prokipyachena for 15- 20 minutes and cooled down.It should not be exposed to impurities, such as leftover food, vomit, etc .;it should not pour water.
In children who are unable to cough up phlegm and swallow it, proceed as follows: irritating cotton swab, wound on a stick teaspoon, the area of the tongue and the posterior pharyngeal wall, causing the cough reflex;collect
collected for the study of the morning sputum should be delivered to the laboratory no later than 1-1.5 hours. In this case, conditions should be created to exclude its cooling during transportation.Otherwise sputum occur quickly change its qualities, composition of microbial colonies that most adversely affect the results of the study, distorting them.
By special assignment to the laboratory doctor sent the entire volume of sputum for the specified number of days.In this case, patients should be warned of the need to spit in a jar full expectorated sputum, rather than swallow it after coughing.
In some cases, the doctor prescribes to keep records of the daily quantity of sputum production for a long time.As a rule, after the morning toilet produce sputum volume measurement obtained in the past day.To do this, spittoon phlegm poured into a beaker of clear, transparent glass, fix its amount and the results are recorded in a special table considering the number of sputum.From now produce collection of sputum for the next day.
Used spittoon should be well washed with warm water and detergent and boil for 20 minutes in a 2% sodium bicarbonate solution.Those who care for the sick, especially with inflammatory respiratory diseases, should make sure that patients do not spat phlegm on the floor or in a handkerchief, as microbes found in the sputum, lifted into the air and are inhaled by others, which can lead to transmission of infection.It should be strictly require that the patient used the spittoon, comply with anti-epidemic regime.For disinfection of the spittoon phlegm on the bottom pour a 5% solution of carbolic acid, 2% solution of potassium permanganate or 3% solution of chlorine bleach.
appearance of veins in the sputum, or a large number of blood points to pulmonary hemorrhage, which is a serious complication of pulmonary diseases.Seeing this, caring for the sick should immediately report it to the local doctor or call an ambulance.
Taking urine. urine is an aqueous colloidal solution and partly a variety of organic and inorganic substances excreted by the kidneys.It can be suspended or dissolved products of physiological and pathological metabolic formed elements (cells) of blood, cellular structures of the urinary tract and kidneys themselves, various salts as crystals (precipitation), microorganisms and other components.As part of the urine, in its chemical properties are reflected not only the defeat of most of the urinary system, but also a number of diseases associated with metabolic disorders, with a disorder of blood circulation and so on.Therefore, to monitor the state of the body's vital systems, patient activity, assess the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions need to systematically monitor diuresis and regularly (on prescription) to direct urine to a lab for testing.
Caregivers should monitor the amount of urine (normal adult person produces per day 1.2-1.4 liters of urine), its color (normal urine is straw-yellow color).Particular attention should be paid to blood in the urine (urine staining pink or reddish in color), which may indicate a serious urinary tract damage, especially if the urine swim shapeless clumps krovjanisto-dark color.It is necessary to monitor the frequency of urination (normally a person urinates 4-6 times a day) and the amount of urine for each urination.
Particular attention should be paid to the presence of pain in the lumbar region, which can often be associated with the development of pathological processes in the kidney.
About all violations related to the urinary system work, it should be at the first visit to the doctor to tell him.For directions to the study of urine is necessary to bear in mind the following.
1) usually collected morning portion of urine is the most concentrated, thus ensuring the fullest possible understanding of its structure.
2) Men urine obtained directly in the bottle washed clean, and for women it is necessary to prepare some clean container with a wide neck, which is then convenient to pour the urine into the bottle.
3) A woman needs to be done before urinating toilet genitals, hosing them with cotton or gauze soaked in warm water (especially well during menstruation), and vaginal opening to put cotton wool in order to release from it do not fall into the urine.
4) urine, which is sent for analysis, you can not keep a long time in a warm room, as long-term storage, it decomposes quickly, and best of all, wrapped bottle of urine to the paper, immediately sent to the laboratory.
A significant proportion of patients have to regularly monitor the daily amount of urine (heart patients, kidney patients, patients with diabetes, and others.) And to celebrate it in a special observation map.In addition, the chemical prescription for urine, which aims to determine the quantity of various kinds, it is also necessary to take daily urine as individual portions can give considerable variations in their composition.The daily amount of urine collected as follows: begin collecting the urine of the patient after he has urinated in the toilet (to the vessel), such as 8 am.After that all urine collected during the day in a special, impeccably clean and dry 2-3-liter jar with a wide neck and cap.One day, t. E. At 8 am the next day, it lets the patient remaining in the bladder urine.In order to avoid the development of fermentation and putrefaction bank should be stored in the cold in a closed form.
Cases when at home you need to take the urine of patients for a number of special studies catheter.This procedure must be performed in all cases, only a nurse, directed from the clinic, using for this purpose the catheter sterile and sterile tube.
Taking stool. feces (stool) - the contents of the lower intestine, removable during defecation (stool, bowel movements), and consisting mainly of food debris, not assimilated by the body, balances the digestive juices, intestinal mucosal cells and a large number of bacterial bodies (microorganisms), componentsby weight, almost half of the stool.
Taking stool is made to all patients for the diagnosis of digestive diseases.
Persons caring for the sick at home, must pay attention to the number of stool, stool frequency, to put a doctor in popularity all adverse changes in bowel habits.The number of bowel movements per day allocated, a person without digestive disorders subject to large fluctuations, depending on the amount and composition of food intake.
When mixed diet the number of bowel movements is 100-200 g per day.In addition to the food composition on the daily amount of feces condition affects the digestive system.The amount of feces increases, firstly, when
excessively fast passage through the gut food mass that prevents adequate absorption of it;Secondly, by lowering the suction capacity of the intestinal wall;third, when excessive penetration of fluid into the intestinal lumen at its inflammatory mucosa.In severe enteritis (inflammation of the small intestine) the amount of feces can reach 2500 At long constipation quantity of stool may be prohibitively low due to a greater than normal, absorption in the intestine.
stool frequency under normal conditions is less than one time per day, the need for a bowel movement usually occurs at the same time of the day, usually in the morning.
Only in rare cases, when it appears necessary to clarify the number of bowel movements, allocated for the day, or when we have in mind the quantitative determination of certain components of the stool (oil, starch, fiber, protein, etc.), Gather all the excrement allocated forday.For most studies rather relatively small (10-15 g) the amount of feces.
Usually cal for research take the morning after sleep.The patient empties the intestines into the pot (vessel).A small amount of stool wooden spatula or trowel placed in a clean, dry jar with a label, close lid.In this form is sent to the general study of calories.
To investigate the feces on eggs of worms or the presence of protozoa amoeba, ciliates and t. D.) Needed a completely fresh feces stored until delivery to the laboratory in the form of heat.Apart from the fact that research is necessary to take calories from three different places all volume of bowel movements, with a view to a high detection glistonositelstva and contamination just collecting feces for analysis and delivery to the laboratory should be done several times (at least 2-3 days in a row).
stool for bacteriological examination sent to the laboratory in a sterile jar or tube.At the same time the day before in the bacteriological laboratory receive a special sterile tube with a cotton swab, well wrapped on the wire.The patient is placed on the right side, left hand pushing the buttocks and right hand circular movements carefully administered a cotton swab into the anus, and gently withdrawn it and put in a test tube, without touching the edges and the wall.Upon receipt in the laboratory sterile vials (jars) with sterile glass or wooden stick is inserted into it (without a tampon) proceed as follows.After defecation patient in a clean vessel from the middle of the volume of feces sterile stick take a piece of stool weight is not more than 1-2 g, neatly placed on the bottom of the tube (jars) and tightly closed with sterile cotton.
for fecal blood impurity, especially in occult bleeding, the patient is prepared for 3 days, excluding from the diet of meat and fish products, as well as medicines that contain iodine, bromine and iron.On the 4th day is sent to the lab stool.
When persistent constipation, when the chair does not happen on their own, to produce the required amount of feces to study need to massage the colon.If this does not work, apply a cleansing enema.To study the need to take part of the dense feces.