Dining with diabetes
When diabetes is especially important to follow the diet.It should be as balanced and correspond to power expenses.Our food consists of three main components: proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
proteins - the major food components.All vital processes in the body related to their activity.They do not contain all the products.Their main suppliers in the body are meat, fish, eggs, cheese, milk, cottage cheese, beans, soy.Every body produces its protein compounds.The source of the protein - amino acids, of which the body builds and reconstructs its own proteins.Because of its reserves of protein the body does not, he should always take care of their refill.
significant portion of protein a person receives from dairy products.We must remember that milk is also a lot of easily digestible carbohydrates.Therefore, diabetes can eat no more than 500 ml of milk or fermented milk products per day.Very useful protein compounds contained in the curd.They are rich in methionine - an amino acid that improves the metabo
holds a large amount of calcium that can lead to kidney stones.
addition of animal protein contained in meat, dairy products, eggs, everyone must constantly consume proteins of plant origin.They help to reduce cholesterol levels in the blood serum, improves carbohydrate metabolism.Diabetics should eat a day, 5 grams of vegetable protein per 1 kg of normal weight.For an adult, the dose can be obtained by drinking 500 ml of milk and eating during the day in addition an egg, 150-200 g of cheese, 200 grams of meat or fish.
Carbohydrates are the source of energy of the whole organism.In plants, they are in the form of sugars, cellulose, starch and the like. D.
sugar contained in plants and soluble in water, can be isolated fructose, glucose, sucrose.
Glucose and fructose are monosaccharides and easily digested, sucrose human body needs to break down, to which a certain amount of energy is wasted.
Water-insoluble sugar are called polysaccharides.They are found in all parts of the plant in the form of starch, cellulose and the like. D. Especially many of them contained in the potato tubers and roots of plants, maize and peas.
main carbohydrate that has nutritional value, it is considered starch.Greater than its content of different wheat, rye, barley, rice, corn, potato tubers.
most important carbohydrate from a physiological point of view - glucose.It is found in all human tissues and in certain quantities is always contained in sprinkles.Cellulose (fiber) promotes better digestion.Fiber increases intestinal peristalsis, helps to free it from deposits and toxins, is a kind of "food" for good bacteria and also forms a ballast material, restricting the action of substances harmful to the body.Especially valuable crude fiber crops, fruits and vegetables.The latest study, the researchers found anti-cancer effect of fiber on the intestinal wall.
in plant tissues also contain pectins relating to polysaccharides.They have the ability to swell and form a gel.
lot of garlic, eggplant, carrots, red beets, quince, pumpkin.It is believed that pectin regulate cholesterol and digestive processes in the gut.
Pa carbohydrates a person has an average of 50 to 70% calorie daily diet, in patients with diabetes - 60%.Each gram of carbohydrate provides 4 calories of energy intake.The need for carbohydrates depends on the energy costs of the organism.Men who engaged in mental or light physical labor, the daily requirement for them ranged from 300 to 500 g have manual workers and athletes is significantly higher.People who are prone to half the pot, you can reduce the amount of dietary carbohydrate without compromising health.
oxidation of glucose and glycogen in the tissues leads to the release of energy needed by the body to perform various functions.Carbohydrates regulate water metabolism, linking water.They are also the carriers of vitamins.Carbohydrates - the main source of the formation of fat in the body.That's why their excessive use leads to obesity.The increased amount of sugar in the diet can also contribute to the formation of gallstones.
According to the chemical structure of carbohydrates are simple or complex.Complex carbohydrates are beginning to undergo a process of transformation in the oral cavity.The saliva produced by the salivary glands, contains two enzymes that break down carbohydrates: amylase and maltose.These enzymes under the action of starch or glycogen polysaccharides cleaved to form glucose.In the stomach, stops the action of amylase.
Sequential exposure to enzymes food carbohydrates turn into monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose), which are absorbed by the intestinal wall.
The absorbed in the intestines of monosaccharides (glucose) through capillaries villous enter the bloodstream and reach the bloodstream from the liver, where converted to glycogen.Splitting of carbohydrates in the intestines occurs at different rates, and hence varies the dynamics of glycemia after consumption of a product.To fast-digesting foods include cereals, and they need to limit the - cereals and pasta to 60 g per day to 100-300 g of bread cereals is preferred buckwheat and oat.Potato is better to eat a day not more than 300-400 g
If diabetes accompanied by obesity, the cereals from the food are eliminated or severely limited, and potatoes daily dose is reduced to 75-100 g bread 100-150 of Productscontaining rapidly digestible carbohydrates, must be strictly evenly distributed throughout the day to eat at a time not more than 100 grams of cereal (20-30 g of raw cereals) or potato puree (100-150 g raw potatoes) and 50-100 grams of black bread.
By slowly digestible carbohydrates are foods (vegetables and fruits) that contain a lot of fiber, slow-absorption in the intestine.They can be eaten without any restrictions.
Despite the constant consumption of tissue glucose and its intermittent flow of the intestine, the blood glucose in the normal is always kept at a certain level and varies between 3,3-5,5 mmol / l.The greatest effect on blood sugar has pancreatic hormone insulin delaying breakdown of glycogen in the liver facilitates the deposition of muscle and sugar assimilation of glucose as an energy material fabrics.It delays the conversion of some amino acids in the liver into sugar, and under the influence of a considerable part of carbohydrate is converted into fat.That is insulin affects all types of metabolism: protein, fat and mineral.With its lack shifts occur in all kinds of exchange.In the body of the patient with diabetes mellitus due to metabolic disorders in the blood and tissues accumulate oxidized products that poison it, and ultimately can lead a person to death.
In diseases of the pancreas person does not have enough of their insulin and must receive it by injection.Insulin enters the bloodstream and is valid for the whole day.If a person eats at a time sugary or starchy foods more than required by the body, the insulin is not enough to deal with it.Then the glucose into the blood and excreted in urine.If it is too long not to take food, insulin administration eliminates a lot of blood glucose, and the person begins to feel bad - developing hypoglycemia.
physiological significance of fat is very flexible.They have a very high energy (1d - 9 kcal), are involved in reduction processes, as a structural part of the cells and their membrane systems solvents are vitamins A, E, D, and facilitate their absorption.Insufficient intake of fat in the body can lead to a violation of the central nervous system, weaken the immune-biological mechanisms, changes in other organs and systems.Animals, which in the diet for a long time, no fat, is less endurance and longevity.The composition
fat and accompanying substances such identified essential vital food ingredients such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, lecithin, vitamins A, E et al.
average adult requirement is 80-100 g fat per day, includingin the plant - 25-30 in healthy human diet from fat should be provided 33% of daily energy values diet in patients with diabetes - up to 25%, which according to modern scientific data is considered optimal.
fats in large amounts found in foods such as brain, heart, eggs, liver, butter, cheese, meat, bacon, poultry, fish, milk.Valuable and vegetable fats, especially for elderly people, since they have no cholesterol.
Excess fat, particularly in the patient with diabetes can lead to the accumulation of products of incomplete combustion in the form of so called ketone bodies, resulting in poisoning of the body and even coma.It is better to eat lean meat, fish, cottage cheese, put less fat in prepared dishes.50-60% of the daily amount of fat should be vegetation, and the best of their assimilation is a salad, salads, soups.
to fats include vegetable oils, have several advantages over animals: contain a number of vitamins, substances that reduce the development of atherosclerosis, etc.But at the same time, do not abuse them, because they are high in calories (100 grams of vegetable oil contains 899 calories and butter - 748 calories).
In diabetes, given the propensity for the development of atherosclerosis, it is necessary to drastically reduce foods rich in cholesterol: fatty meat, liver, brain, udder, kidney.When cooked they can bake, boil, simmer.
undesirable fried foods due to the fact that in diabetes the liver is suffering.They adversely affect the condition of the bile ducts and biliary tract.It is not recommended to cook dishes with vinegar, pepper and meat and mushroom broths.
Vitamins are highly active biologically substances capable of ensuring the normal course of biological processes in the body.They increase the functional capacity of the major systems of the body, its resistance to unfavorable factors.
word "vitamin" comes from the Latin «vitae» - life, and really justify the name.Without vitamins can not normally exist and develop, no living cell.
Vitamins are considered essential preventive measure against many diseases, improve mental and physical performance, enhance the strength of the body to fight infection.
basic amount of vitamins a person gets from food, some are synthesized by intestinal microflora.Once in the body, they bind with proteins vitamins, enzymes and enzyme forming compound.They are involved in the formation of hormones provide carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism, affect human growth and development.Their drawback, particularly in spring can cause beriberi.
Vegetables, fruits, forest fruits, herbs - sources of vitamins.
vitamin A deficiency usually occurs after prolonged physical stress, in certain endocrine and infectious diseases, goiter, pregnancy, and in the absence in the diet of plant foods containing vitamins.
All vitamins are divided into two groups: water-soluble (C) and fat-soluble (A, D, E, K).
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) - a relatively simple compound, which plays a huge role in metabolic processes.Ascorbic acid largely determines the immunity to infection, in combination with rutin (vitamin P) has a beneficial effect on the state of the vascular wall, so it is of great importance in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis, is involved in the absorption of iron in the intestine.It is widespread in nature - all vegetables, fruits, berries in certain quantities it contains.However, vitamin C is unstable and very if not properly stored or boil rapidly destroyed.
human body need ascorbic acid is 70-100 mg per day, but it rises during exercise, the body when exposed to high temperatures in the Spring of the year, during the disease.Increased need for vitamin C, and in the elderly.You must constantly be administered in a daily diet of fresh vegetables, fruits, herbs, widely used in the winter pickled and pickled fruits and vegetables.
especially a lot of vitamin C in blackcurrant, wild rose."Who rosehip drink, he lives a hundred years," - Russian proverb says.
daily need of an elderly man over and reaches 120-130 mg.Very much vitamin C is contained in the green onion (100 g contained 30 mg of vitamin), while in its large onions and three times less.A lot of it in green walnuts, sauerkraut, black currants (up to 300 mg per 100 g of berries).
As additional sources of ascorbic acid, especially in the winter season, it is recommended to use fruit and vegetable juices, special infusions and decoctions made from the most rich in this vitamin natural products.
infusion of rose hips.15 g of dried fruit (daily dose), rinse in cold water, crushed, pour a glass of boiling water and infuse it in a tightly sealed container overnight, then strain and drink 1 glass a day in a warm or hot.The content of vitamin C in one glass is approximately 100 mg.
Infusion from the needles.30 g pine needles, just separated from the twigs, rinse with cold water, chop, pour triple the amount of cooled boiled water for 2-3 hours (can be on all night).The infusion filter and defend the 6-7 h. The liquid is then drained carefully from the sediment, pour into bottles and store in a cool place.Vitamin C content in the glass is 40-50 mg.Drink 1 glass per day.To improve the taste you can add honey or cranberry juice.Keep infusion needle can be no more than three days in a dark cool place.
B vitamins (B1, B6, C, 2) require the person in an amount of 10-20 mg per day, but the absence or deficiency in the diet at least one of them leads to serious health problems.So, with a deficiency or absence of vitamin B, developed polyneuritis, beri-beri;at deficiency of vitamin B2 is sharply reduced visual acuity;with vitamin B12 deficiency anemia occurs.
source of B vitamins serve many foods.These include: meal, yeast, meat, fish, wheat and other grupmy vitamin deficiency in developing, as a rule, in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract when disturbed absorption of vitamins in the gut..
folic acid deficiency is more common in older people and causes anemia.The source of folic acid are cabbage, beets, carrots, potatoes and other vegetables and fruits.
fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, K only enter the body with fats.
Vitamin A (retinol) promotes normal metabolism, improves vision, increases the resistance of the skin and mucous membrane infection.With its deficit in food developing the disease, popularly called "night blindness", reduced resistance to infections and colds.The daily requirement for vitamin A 1.5-2 mg.Sources of vitamin fat saltwater fish, cod liver oil, milk, butter.
provitamin A (carotene) found in many ovo Shah and vegetables: carrots, red peppers, onions, tomatoes, apricots.
Vitamin D is involved in the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in the body, influencing the rate of absorption in the intestine.It is necessary for the prevention of rickets in children, to improve fracture healing in elderly and senile age.The need for vitamin D increases in people living in the polar night or working under the ground, that is, in the absence of ultraviolet radiation (vitamin D synthesis may (esc in the skin under the influence of sunlight).
However, excessive amounts of vitamin D daily