The oldest spice
Historians suggest that mustard - this is one of the oldest, if not the oldest spice, which began to be used by people as food.It is an annual (sometimes perennial) plant of the cruciferous family has been to the present time is very widespread in Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
Mustard has taken a worthy place in almost all European cultures.And the plant itself, and the products made on the basis thereof, have become part of the mythology of the peoples living in the Old and the New World.For example, known is a legend.The Persian king Darius sent Alexander the Great bag of sesame seeds, to show that the soldier had so much that they are uncountable.Alexander sent Darius in response to a bag of grains
mustard, telling him thereby that his army is much larger (in fact in this case, the bag fits much more seeds) and much stronger (grain mustard have a very pungent taste).The French from the Middle Ages to the present time there is an utterance: "Treat yourself to a chief specialist for the preparation
«Gorouhscha" (from the word "bitter"), ie mustard, has been mentioned in the ancient Russian pre-Christian monuments found to date.This inscription is engraved on a clay jug of X century.Some even believe that in this way "bitter" began predetermined all further complicated the fate of our country.Perhaps some part of truth in this.However, popular in Europe, seasoning, mustard, has taken root and become their "own" in Russia until the end of the XVIII century.The reasons for this state of affairs had a very objective.In Russia, there was no vinegar - the substance, which is one of the main components of the seasoning.The "wine" of European countries, such problems never existed.In addition, wild mustard growing in the vast steppe territory of Russia between the Volga and the Don, a little old enough for cooking spices.Mustard oil and powder from this plant were too bitter.
cultivation of seeds of white (French and English) mustard for the first time in 1784
engaged retired general Afanasievich Nikita Beketov.Hearing that the capital appeared some new delicacy, imported to Russia from abroad in the form of a sharp seasoning for meat dishes and even in the form of vegetable oil from mustard grown in England and France, some landowners in the Tsaritsyno districtWe tried to get something like that from the local wild mustard.Afanasievich Nikita Beketov, who lived in those places knew about it.
In St. Petersburg, where he attended a dinner at the palace, Nikita Afanasievich first tried and seasoning and mustard oil.It was then that the interested general and first drew their attention to a familiar weed thickets which can be found right next to the house.
Wild mustard is unpretentious, grows wherever there is a small plain or sunny slopes.It has low humidity.Beketov started to conduct the first experiments on the recycling plants and pressed from wild mustard oil in a primitive way, using as a load stone and iron.But the resulting oil was taste too bitter.Nikita Afanasievich using St. Petersburg connections and acquaintances, came into contact with Russian Free Economic Society, got through them the seeds of the white French and English mustard, and in 1784 vigorously undertook a series of experiments on the cultivation of plants and the production of these mustard oil and powder for spices.Experiments were suc
governmental, butter and powder, were sent to St. Petersburg in the Russian Free Economic Society and to the market, get good grades, and the experimenter Beketov was awarded the gold medal of the society.
But due to his illness, and soon after his death, the case for the production of mustard on the experiments did not go.Fortunately, there were young, energetic, inquisitive people in Sarepta from among newcomers to these places Germans, which continued the work Beketov.Conrad Neytts, a doctor by profession, in the 90 years of XVIII century, was already an experienced missionary who lived among the Kalmyks, knew their language, customs, rites, and treated them among the Kalmyks had a lot of friends.Roaming with them over the vast steppes, Neytts seen in the spring field with large yellow flowers that look like a flower "beketovskoy" mustard.Looking closer, he compared with experimental culture flowers Beketov and established their relationship.
Neytts appealed to Russian and Tatar peasants asking him to sow seeds and grow mustard, summoned from the neighboring villages of strong men as assistants in its pilot production.Years of painful searches, experiments, spent force, energy, organizational skills led him to this success, and the first in Russia, mustard flour, mustard first first appeared mustard oil is in Zarephath, in the Tsaritsyno district.Years of hard experiments on crossing different cultivars and wild mustard, which has a high resistance to drought, Neyttsu managed to get a special
grade sareptskoi mustard, surpassing all other (progenitor) varieties in taste due to the concentration in it many useful extractives.
In 1801 Neytts made a better dining experience in the production of mustard on a hand mill of the mustard seed.In 1810 mustard Neyttsa, whose work was continued in-law Johann Caspar Glitch, he gained access to the king's table, where she was declared fit, very good quality, and the Emperor Alexander I Neyttsa awarded a gold watch.Since then, imports of mustard from England has been terminated.