In the first half of the XIX century.due to increased predation catch medicinal leeches have virtually disappeared from the water.The result is a proliferation of artificial cultivation of medicinal worms - piyavkovodstvo.
divorce leeches in makeshift conditions, as well as on an industrial scale.the whole economy have been created for the breeding of worms that were in demand in hospitals and clinics, as well as in educational institutions, with medical and zoological departments and faculties.While leeches breeding in the outdoor common pools.
Currently medical worms are bred in special farms, laboratories, possessing artificial reservoirs (concrete pools with stepped walls or ponds) that mimic the natural habitat of worms.
The main requirement for the water, which contains leeches - its purity.
Reservoirs should be well lit by the sun on their bottom laid out a handful of stones that leeches are used as houses.
medicinal leeches are fed large bunches of fresh blood, which is purchased in slaughte
After leech reach a certain weight (1.5-2 g), they cease to feed, to make suitable for therapeutic treatments.Some species are used for breeding.
cultured leeches are developing much faster than are in the wild, and in no way inferior to them in quality.In conventional reservoirs leeches grow to a "medical" condition only 3 years after their exit from the cocoon.In bdellohozyaystvah this period is reduced to 1 - 1.5 years.In 1920-ies.bdello first-logical laboratory in the world has been created in Russia.As a result, numerous studies of breeding system of rules has been developed content, storage and transportation of leeches.
Leeches reaching reproductive status and the required size, called the uterus.
After the mating season, which runs for approximately 1 month, leeches are seated on the liquor.The mother liquor is a container-cage, which simulates natural conditions, combining the availability of land and water.The bottom is lined with liquor wet peat soil, which keeps moss turf helps to regulate humidity.Leeches break through the first turn in shallow soil, which is on the land, and lay in his cocoon with eggs.After some time the pods are transferred from the mother liquor in water.From eggs later develop conferva little young leeches, the length of which is only 7-8 mm, and weight - about 0.03 g of filamentous algae, as well as adults, feed the fresh blood of animals.
In cold weather, the worms transform for the winter in a cool room.To do this they are placed in a vessel containing a mixture of peat and moistened ground.
Top container of leeches is closed with a clean cloth and tied off.
During this period, leeches are buried in the ground and fall into a stupor until spring.If necessary, they are removed from the vessel and placed in a warm environment, after which the worms rapidly activated and become suitable for use in medical procedures.
only clean containers are used for the content of leeches, previously thoroughly washed.During storage of leeches in the water tank must be replaced periodically.In this case, leeches are not extracted.In the process of changing water purification capacity must also carefully wash leeches, as they are susceptible moulting.If this is not done, the old shell (cuticle) may eventually drag the leech and impair its circulatory system.
In addition, it should be cleaned of mucus secreted by leeches, the inner surface of the container.Water floating in it leeches can be carefully poured into another container.The bulk container, rinse, fill with clean water.Thereafter leeches returned gently into place.Finally, the capacity of the procedure is closed and tightly knotted cloth.
When conservation approach, the main condition for the conservation of medicinal properties of leeches is a high-quality water, preferably from a natural body of water.Use boiled or distilled water can not.Tap water before placing it leeches should first let stand, and then pass it through a special cleaning filters.
Another important condition for the proper storage of conservation is to maintain the required temperature and lighting environment in which are placed a leech.The optimal temperature is room.Lack of heat, as well as its excess, adversely affect the state of leeches.
Because leeches are amphibians and often crawl out of the water, great value for their content has clean air.Therefore, in areas where they are located, smells perfume unacceptable, medicines, tobacco, chemical mixtures, and so on. N. It should be regularly ventilated place storage.
Lighting same should be sufficient, but not direct sunlight or artificial.
All establishments engaged in the production and storage of leeches, practiced their daily inspection.In case of detection of unhealthy individuals immediately take appropriate measures to prevent the spread of the disease.Sick and dead leech removed from the vessel in which they were stored, exposed and she sanitized container.When processing can not use chemical disinfectants as well as impurities in the water (even in very small concentrations) may adversely affect the state of leeches.Therefore, used mainly hot water and heat treatment.
Sick individuals in the research institutions are used to work out methods of treatment of diseases of the leech, which by now is open a lot.
Leeches quite well tolerated in transportation in cars, trains and even aircraft.For transportation leeches are placed in a bag with moist peat land, which put in any convenient for the transportation of containers.