1) The balance between energy coming from food and energy consumed by man in the process of life 2) satisfaction of needs of the body in a certain amount of qualitative composition and ratio of nutrients;3) compliance with the diet.
So, first of all about energy balance.All the necessary energy for human life comes from food.Human energy expenditure consist of expenditure on the internal organs of energy for metabolic processes maintaining body temperature at a constant level and muscular activity.
Institute of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences of the power developed physiologically proved norms calorie needs depending on the nature of professional activity, sex, age, and sport.
Recall that characterizes the calorie amount of heat.
As labor intensity of the adult population is divided into five groups:
1st - persons whose work is not related to the expenditure of physical labor or require minor physical effort (manual workers, employees);2nd - the person whose work requires little physical effort
daily requirement for an adult with a strong energy public service towns and villages kcal
All foods depending on their calorie (indicated per 100g edible portion) can be divided into five groups.1st - very high calorie (450-900 kcal) - butter, vegetable, nuts, chocolate, halva, cakes layered with cream, pork fat, sausage, smoked;2nd great-calorie (200-400 kcal) - cream, sour cream, cottage cheese, fat, cheese, ice cream, pork meat, cooked sausage, hot dogs, geese, ducks, herring fat, saury, salmon, eggs, cereals, pasta,bread, sugar, honey, jam, marmalade, candy fondant;3rd - moderate calorie (100-199 kcal) - cottage cheese bold, ice milk, mutton, beef, rabbit meat, chicken, eggs, horse mackerel, mackerel, sardines, herring, lean, sturgeon;4th - low calorie (30-99 kcal) - milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, low-fat, cod, hake, perch, flounder, carp, pike, paste 'Ocean', fruits, berries, potatoes, beets, carrots, green peas;5th - very low calorie (less than 30 kcal) - zucchini, cabbage, cucumbers, radishes, lettuce, turnips, tomatoes, squash, peppers, cranberries, mushrooms and fresh.Reduced calorie (power failure) causes not only consumption of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, to a decrease in skeletal muscle mass, thereby reducing the ability to work and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases.Excess calorie diet leads to the deposition of fats and carbohydrates in the form of fat in fat cells, to increase body mass, obesity.
For normal functioning of the body requires not only the appropriate energy supply, but also a constant supply it with all the nutrients: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, mineral salts.It is known that some nutrients (minerals, some amino acids, vitamins) are formed in the human body.These factors are essential food and only enter the body with food.
For good food digestion and the body's ability to live becomes very important balanced diet. This term refers to the optimal ratio between proteins, fats and carbohydrates in food.Normally, it should be 1: 1.1 : 4.1 for young men and women engaged in mental work, and 1: L3: 5 - with heavy physical labor in the diet of healthy people of a young age, living in a temperate climate and not engaged in physical laborproteins should provide 13 %, fats - 33, carbohydrates - 54 % daily caloric intake, taken as 100. The proteins of animal origin must be 55 % of the total protein, and vegetable oil - to 30 % of the total fat in the diet.
In nature there are no products that contained all essential nutrients.Therefore, power must be used in combinations of different products.
The diet should meet the following requirements:
1) the energy value of the diet should cover the energy consumption of the body;
2) the number of balanced between a food (nutrients) substances
should be optimal;
3) necessarily a good assimilation of food, depending on its composition and method of preparation
4) food should have high organoleptic properties (appearance, concentration
sistentsiyu, taste, smell, color, temperature) that affect the appetite and digestibility;
5) should strive for diversity of food due to the wide range of products and different ways of cooking;
6) should be sought (by selecting the optimum composition, volume, perfect cooking) food ability to create a feeling of fullness;
7) should strictly observe sanitary-epidemiological perfection and the harmlessness of food.
Diet includes the time and the number of meals, the intervals between them, the distribution of diet on caloric, chemical composition, and the weight of food packages for meals.
During his whole life should be guided by the following rules of a balanced diet regime:
1) 4 meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, a glass of kefir before bedtime);one or two meals
dangerous to health (threat of myocardial infarction, acute pancreatitis);
2) the exclusion of food in between meals;
3) the time between breakfast and lunch, lunch and dinner should be 5-6 hours, and the interval between dinner and the start of sleep 3-4 hours;
4) suite of products at every meal should provide the optimal ratio of all the necessary nutrients for a healthy person breakfast and lunch should receive more than 2/3 of the total number of daily ration of calories, and for dinner - less than 1/3;
5) meal in a strictly set hours;The time factor plays a big role in the formation of conditioned reflex reactions (saliva, gastric juice);the body as it is preparing to receive and digest food;
6) to take the time during the meal;so to eat at lunch time you need to spend at
less than 30 minutes;
7) thorough, leisurely chewing food (good dental health);
8), the last meal (at least for 1.5-2 hours before bedtime) to include only low-calorie foods (milk, dairy drinks, fruit juices);prohibited fried foods, foods rich in fat, crude fiber, spices, table salt;
9) clean, cozy dining room, a nice table setting;exclusion factors detract from the food (talk radio, TV, reading, etc.).
Remember that failure to comply with the rules of rational diet - one of the main causes of diseases of the digestive organs (stomach ulcer, chronic gastritis, colitis, and others.).
modern achievements of science suggests that by changing the nature and diet can have a positive effect on metabolism, adaptive capabilities of the organism, and therefore have a positive impact on the pace and direction of the aging process.Poor nutrition and a violation of his regime - an important source of various diseases.What diseases can occur due to malnutrition?Firstly, the diseases caused by deficiency or excess of particular nutrients in a food:. Alimentary dystrophy, obesity, vitamin deficiencies, etc. Second, poor diet plays a large role in the development of diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, hypertensiondisease, diabetes, gout, gallstones, liver disease and pancreatic cancer.