Power man undergoes a change in all periods of human development.In the present era has changed the nature of power and the discovery of fire and the use of thermal processing of foods allowed indigestible hard to make a digestible foods.
In all periods of human society development of the main factors determining the nature of human nutrition, economic opportunities were the presence or absence of food supply, climate, national, and many other features.
great influence on the development and dynamics of changes in the nature of power have ways of keeping food stocks and other assets.
idea of the nature of human nutrition, nutritional and biological value of food resources during the last decade increased significantly.
development of the science of nutrition and in-depth research carried out in this area, revealed new data that allow you to make correct and in some cases change the established notions.
caloric content - not necessarily useful
recently weight gain after the holidays and recreati
Hardly anyone today would express satisfaction with the increase in their body weight, which occurred over a short vacation period.
are fewer and fewer people considering an increase in its weight as an indicator of health.And, accordingly, it becomes more and more people are concerned about their weight stabilize and in some cases its decline.
Only a very small percentage of adults in need of increasing their weight.This type asthenic persons, as well as disorders of the central nervous or endocrine systems, people with reduced weight induced illness.
term "recovered" radically changed."Corrected" not the one who has increased the weight, and the one who has strengthened the overall tone of the body, increased his mobility, muscle activity revived.
More recently, the main criterion for evaluating the nutrition is calorie.Many people today still believe that good food - high-calorie.
was common tradition in the organization of the power of a team to achieve the highest possible caloric intake.This affected, in particular, and on the structure of power in nursing homes, which in most cases was characterized by high levels of calories.And the result, install and secure the view that the sanatorium food should always be abundant, high-calorie.
Many visitors to the resort are still waiting on the spa menu, something special, different from the usual food, which was before the arrival to the resort.
should be noted that high calorie - the easiest way to implement the so-called good nutrition.Against the backdrop of abundance and unlimited calories is easy to provide a variety and high taste of food, and much more difficult to arrange no less tasty and varied table on the background of his small, but enough calories.
Meanwhile, today is particularly high scores deserve those health institutions sanatorium, which implemented the principle of low-calorie food with the achievement of the highest performance and maximum flavor diversity.Of course, for young people with its mobility, active sports are more suitable resorts and tourist center with a high-calorie diet.
Housewife, prepares breakfast, lunch and dinner to his family, in the recent past adhered firmly established principles: "fatter - more tasty."
"A piece of meatier" was a welcome like when buying meat, and in its culinary use.This is reflected in the commodity classification of food products.
«Fat" was the basis for the differentiation of classes.As a rule, vysokozhirnye products are premium, less fat - to the lowest.For example, high-grade meat - the most fat.
Price sausages are also largely dependent on the content of fat.Vysokozhirnye cottage cheese, sour cream, milk - more expensive products than low-fat.
Meanwhile, with modern food hygiene products is just the greatest value to human health are foods not high fat content, but rather a low-fat and moderate fat content.
receives a strange situation: the best from a physiological point of view, meat by product classification called the second grade, the product "is not first class."By the higher the quality of the meat referred, which is not the best in their biological properties.
That is, we repeat, applies to other products;in terms of food hygiene are most desirable cottage cheese low-fat, low-fat sausages, meat lean poultry and so on. d.
In any case, people who are engaged in intellectual work, work automation and highly mechanized industrial enterprises, people mature, elderly and retirement age, and many othersabsolutely in need of plentiful fat food.Changed conditions, thus subjected to substantial revision idea of "a piece of meatier."
about fat and "oil oil»
even greater changes in the perception of the usefulness of fat.Firmly entrenched view that animal fats are more fulfilling than the plant, has undergone substantial revision.
properties of vegetable oils study revealed the presence in their structure of a number of biological components that are not found in animal fats, including butter and.
Such important substances such as Essential unsaturated fatty acids, sitosterol, phosphatides, tocopherols were better represented it in vegetable oils.These biologically active substances are needed for normalization of lipid metabolism in the body.The biological effect of a certain degree is aimed at preventing the development of atherosclerosis.At the same time revealed the negative properties of the preferential consumption of animal fats, which are abundant in the diet is undoubtedly a contributing factor to the development of atherosclerosis.So, it creates a situation where "full" animal fats fade into the background, and the "defective" vegetable fats began to fully recommend.
How must now apply to the fat part of the diet?
biological usefulness of fat are provided only when you turn it and fats of vegetable and animal fats, which are mutually reinforcing components missing.Ingestion of vegetable oil only deprives the body many vital substances (contained, in particular butter).Vegetable oil should be included in the daily diet in small amounts (approximately 20-25 g).
widespread margarine - combined fat, including vegetable oils and animal fats.It can be varied enrich, to enter into it with milk and cream, use a highly biologically fats of fish and marine animals.The margarine can be "nested" very high flavor indices.All this has made it one of the most common types of dietary fat.
Based margarine produced and so widespread nowadays, combined oil.All
combination (consisting of a mixture of butter and margarine) used hydrogenated oils (hydrogenated) fats containing trans fatty acids.Numerous studies have now shown that trans fatty acids, or, as they are also called trans fats, have a negative impact on human health than saturated fats and cholesterol.
is therefore very important to be able to distinguish the present combination of butter.How to do it?
not attach importance to names, the form of packaging and drawings on it.Often, manufacturers and sellers is called the combined oil creamy.Cow on the packaging - not a guarantee that before you clean butter, without any admixture of trans fats.
only on the composition of the present can be distinguished from the combined butter.When the list of ingredients is present not only butter, and the vegetable oil is uniquely combined.In the classic cow (butter) butter other fats can not be.If the composition of the oil of less than half of milk fat, the product nutritionally margarine is much closer to than to the oil.
If the packaging is no information on the composition of the product and its accessories to the butter, then there should be the inscription "GOST 37-91" (national standard, made up of butter).If the package no staff or GOST, but only TU (technical conditions) with a long series of numbers, the membership of such a product to the butter raises serious doubts.
This terrible cholesterol
In the past and up to the present widely held view of the extreme dangers of dietary cholesterol and its primary role in the development of atherosclerosis.Consequently, many people of retirement and the average age is excluded from the diet of eggs, butter, liver, ham and sausages, fatty meat, lamb, pork, and others.
uncommon to meet people who persistently elicit much cholesterol in a given food product.
Indeed, the published data on the increase in the level of cholesterol in the blood under the influence of cholesterol-containing food is more than enough.However, the published studies, the authors of which are not reliably establish food cholesterol due to the development of atherosclerosis.The main importance they attach to the general excess food, the abundance of it in fat and carbohydrate, sedentary lifestyle, neuro-emotional factors, endocrine disorders (especially disorders of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, and others.).
There is also evidence that the introduction of dietary cholesterol inhibits its biosynthesis in the body.So, maybe it is due to dietary cholesterol is provided by high perfection of mechanisms of regulation of cholesterol metabolism.It is possible that prolonged exclusion of cholesterol from the diet leads to a weakening of cholesterol metabolism regulation mechanisms.Lack of cholesterol in the diet, not encouraging these mechanisms to be active, making them inert, passive, unable to prevent the formation of cholesterol in the body large quantities.
main supply the body's cholesterol is due to the formation in the liver, which is rightly considered a major regulator of cholesterol in the blood and tissues.It is proved that the cholesterol synthesis in the liver is in inverse proportion to its quantity supplied with food, ie. E. Synthesis is increased when the cholesterol in the food is small, and decreases when it much.
Thus beskholesterinovoe diet can lead to increased formation of cholesterol in the body.
How can that be?How to treat cholesterol-containing foods?
can now be regarded as established that healthy people (including mature and older) should not seek a sharp decline in the cholesterol in food.
On the other hand, the elderly and having atherosclerosis signs people should not use high-calorie diets rich in fats and in carbohydrate.
As such suppliers cholesterol like eggs and butter, then completely abandon them should not in all cases.
For the above contingents are required, however, some limitations of eggs and butter (1 egg, 30 g of butter per day).
Gradually changed attitude to sugar.Previously, sugar was seen as a much-needed food product that does not require any limitation.Only people who are prone to be overweight and obesity, the use of limited sugar.
course, the sugar should be regarded as a valuable, easily digestible food.
sugar in the body is used for the formation of glycogen - a substance supplying the liver, heart and muscles.
It is an integral part of the blood, where the amount it is kept constant.
All these and many other beneficial properties of sugar convinced of its necessity and usefulness.
However, abundant consumption of sweet sharply increased formation of fat in the body from other nutrients.Consumption of large quantities of sugar negatively affects the state of beneficial intestinal microflora.
There is evidence that an excessive amount of sugar contributes to the disruption of cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis.That is why people should be encouraged to mature-aged and elderly, as well as those who are overweight to limit sugar intake to 50 grams per day.
As for young people, and especially children, as well as people suffering great physical activity, the consumption of sugar should have a sufficiently high (about 100 grams per day).
In recent years a proliferation of different concepts and theory of power in many countries, the most appropriate to the needs of modern man.
concept of a balanced diet based on the principle of complete meet the body's needs in all the necessary food and essential materials.It is intended to include substances in daily food ration of man in a balanced way in the ratios for optimum interaction and combination of essential components, and if necessary dosbalansirovaniya clean them with essential components (amino acids, vitamins and others.).
There are, however, some objections and criticisms of the scientific validity of the concept of a balanced diet.They relate mainly to the fact that we should not develop the concept of a balanced diet, which does not matter, and to direct all its efforts on deep scientific substantiation standards needs in food and biologically active substances.
The physiological norms to justify these needs, the more accurately and efficiently it will be hosted by the power of the population.
With such strict rules-based food substances eliminates the need for a balanced diet concept.
There are objections and theoretical nature, consisting in the fact that to develop a balanced diet at all devoid of all foundation and impractical, as each individual organism will never recognize and will not accept "foreign" balance and still balance the nutrients in their own way, according their individualneeds.
Proof of this is the transamination of amino acids, are constantly occurring in the body, even when the food arrives very rational and high-value protein combinations and complexes, which provides a balanced diet.
There are other, less important objections.
However, a balanced diet for most age groups is, in vidimomy, the most appropriate and complete.
Increased biological value food
So significant is not so much caloric intake, as its biological usefulness.Who can be considered indisputable: it is necessary to improve and maintain a high biological value of food in the modern conditions of life and human activities.
The recommended increase in the consumption of vegetables, fruits, food and wild herbs (parsley, dill, chives, coriander, watercress, mint and other herbs) as a primary means to enhance the biological supply of properties that should be a mandatory part of every time receptionfood (not just dinner, but breakfast and dinner).
important means of increasing the biological value of food - the daily inclusion in the diet of dairy products (yogurt, kefir, pahtovyh products and others.).
For dairy products, which now place a higher biological properties include buttermilk and pahtovye milk drinks and cream.