Effect of massage
in human muscle contains three types of specific receptors: the end of the primary spindles, secondary end spindles and Golgi tendon receptors.These receptors respond to mechanical stimulation and participate in the coordination of movements, as a source of information about the state of the motor apparatus.
Muscle spindles are small oblong formations located deep in the muscle (Fig.).Inside the capsule of each spindle is a bundle of muscle fibers.These fibers are called intrafusal, unlike all the other muscle fibers, which are called zkstrafuzalnye.The spindles are arranged parallel extra-fuzalnym fibers, so the muscles under tension on the spindle load increases and decreases with the reduction.
Fig.The structure of the muscle fiber and its innervation.
1 - a proximal end attached to the fiber of the skeletal muscles;2 - distal end of the fiber attached to fascia;3 - Nuclear bag;4 - afferent fibers;5 - efferent fibers;6 - motor fibers going to skeletal muscle.
spindles respond to two ty
spindles can be regarded as a direct source of information about the length of the muscle, its changes, unless the muscle is not excited.When active, the muscles need to consider the impact of the system, which supports spindles impulses shortens the muscles, which allows the receptors to react to interference caused by non-uniformity of movement as an increase or decrease in the frequency of the pulses, and thus participate in the correction movement.
Stretching a muscle therapist achieves gain impulses from the muscle spindles into the corresponding segments of the spinal cord, thereby increasing the tone of the nerve center that controls the activity of the muscles.
question arises: why, despite the fact that the use of any massage techniques causes increased impulses from the muscle spindle receptors or mechanoreceptors and - as a consequence - increase the tone of the relevant departments of the central nervous system, in addition to the exciting action of massage, and distinguish its inhibitory effects?This phenomenon can be explained by one of the properties of the nerve centers, which receives all the information about the external effects on the body and its internal state.
Under the nerve center (functionally) understand set of neurons located in different parts of the central nervous system and the combined performance of a single function.Each has its nerve center of the receptive field, ie the area of the skin, muscle group, and so on. E., Where the information comes in.If you stimulate the nerve center of a pulse frequency optimal for him quite a short time, it will enter into a state of excitation, thus affecting the state of the area of the body, which it provides the function.If the number of pulses will be too large or they will come from for a long time, the central nervous develop braking called "braking after excitation."This is due to functional features and properties of the membrane of the neuron synapse interneuronal, ie excitation transfer seats from one nerve cell to another.Thus, the use of surface massage improves the average duration of the excitatory process in the nerve centers, and the use of a deep massage with a gradual increase in the impact strength contributes to the development of inhibitory processes, ie, the "inhibition after excitation."Apparently, it is possible to achieve the braking effect and a superficial massage, but this would require much more time.
Of course, it should be borne in mind that the structure and nature of the body's responses to massage each time are different depending on the ratio of excitation and inhibition in the cerebral cortex, the functional state of the receptor field, which is subjected to massage effect, the state of fitness, massage natureand used techniques.The effectiveness of the massage depends on the knowledge of the functional state of the masseur massaged.
By proprioceptors group, except the muscle spindles are and joint receptors.They are located in the joint capsules and ligaments.
The joint capsules are receptors in which the frequency of digits varies in accordance with a position of the joint at rest, and with the speed of its movement.Histologically they are receptors of type Ruffini corpuscles.Bundles contain receptors that are similar in shape to the Golgi bodies, and some cells, such Pacinian corpuscles.In addition, there are free nerve endings, which is still unknown function.It is believed that they are involved in the transmission of pain signals from the joints.
When the masseur passive movements of the joints in the massaged excited articular receptors and initiate the process chain, similar in their physiological mechanisms discussed above with characteristics of the transmission of nerve impulses from the muscle spindles and mechano-receptors.
In conclusion, devoted to the physiological effects of massage on the mechanical and proprioceptors, it should be noted that they considered the effect of massage on one side only - from the perspective of neuro-reflex theory.However, as previously mentioned, the effects obtained by applying massage techniques can only be explained by taking into account the complex effects on the body massage.To obtain a more complete picture of the physiological effects of massage you need to consider other aspects of his influence.