The history of the bath
Bani emerged as places hygienic and medicinal since ancient times and served as a means of cleansing the body and its recovery.However they entered not everywhere at the same time in constant usage.For example, in the Middle Ages in some places concern for the purity of the body it was considered a matter sin and this was treated as a demonic delusion.It is known that the daughter of one of the French kings died from lice, that is not even known aristocrats, what soap.They did not know what a handkerchief and, although it was known in ancient Greece.
Special facilities for washing the body appeared in ancient times in the East.Cleanliness and neatness of all oriental religions were among the virtues.In India, China, Egypt bath was considered a means of maintaining health.
Historical sources indicate that the largest "Neat" were the ancient Greeks, who even before the bath used for body cleaning sand;for this purpose it brought even from the shores of Egypt.Ancient Egyptians washed using a paste of bees
greatest perfection achieved baths in the Roman Empire - is a Roman baths.First, the so-called natural sources of heat and hot water, as well as a simple cold and warm baths contained individuals.The Romans of all the peoples of antiquity best appreciated the importance, or at least the sensual pleasure of immersion in water.Greeks and Romans also very early the importance of swimming as a means to develop athletic been recognized.And only at sunset Rome Empire saw the construction of such large baths, that delight today's visitors.Anyone who did not see the Caracal baths in Rome, can hardly make a correct idea of the place which took swimming in the everyday life of Roman citizens.The ruins of the vast building, which, as they say, could accommodate 1600 bathers, with the consolidated ceilings, with hundreds of columns, with special facilities for swimming, richly decorated with mosaics, can not cause the admiration of the observer with its splendor and size.
In the era of the Empire there were vast public facilities, luxuriously decorated and consist not only of the actual baths, but also had numerous other premises.These institutions are also called terms.They had a place for outdoor walks, sometimes under the porticos;Hall for gymnastic exercises, discussions (chat rooms and social disputes);premises for hearing speakers and poets, library;gallery of works of art, and others. In some particularly rich Baths were even small theaters.A variety of services and entertainment, refined furnishings and comfort that distinguishes the richest terms, made them centers of public life, a kind of clubs.Most wealthy Romans carried out a considerable part of the day.
Some of the lists were the baths, which made the place terms not only entertainment, but also a gambling establishment, especially for the leisure of the Roman youth.
Bathing studied Romans as art and swimming techniques were considered a subject worthy of serious discussion, according to the author's encyclopedic works on medicine and hygiene Cornelius Celsus (I c. BC).It has been accurately determined while swimming for different sorts of baths, stay in them as in baths with hot air and steam, or with hot, warm and cold water: it was strictly regulated.
Banshchikov have at their disposal numerous items and products for visitors: various ointments, pastes that are used instead of soap, bath groomer and other items to remove calluses and so in..This attendant wore on his belt.The view of the importance of bathing prevailed in the minds of the Romans.Remains of Roman baths have survived wherever there were Roman settlements.
accessories almost all major term was a special room to wash, consisting of several functional divisions:
• rooms for undressing;
• more or less a large swimming pool with water temperature, common in the basin could bathe and even swim;
• enclosed space for washing with cold water;
• Facilities for washing bath with warm water;
• hot baths;
• hot steam bath;
• separate rooms unwilling to wash with the other.
When the baths were special women's half, which consisted of the same offices as the men.
first public baths were in Rome at the turn of the new era under the Emperor Augustus (63 BC-14 AD).They were built his companion commander Agrippa in the Campus Martius.Emperor Nero (38 ^ -68 AD.) In the same area of the city built the other baths, which were later expanded by Emperor Alexander Severus (193-211 AD.).Even more extensive than in Rome, baths were built by the Emperor Titus (39-61 AD.) In the Esk-Vilinskaya hill.Subsequently, these terms have been extended under Trajan (53-117 AD.).Baths of Caracalla, the Roman emperor (211-217 AD.), Occupying a vast area to the south-east of the Aventine, distinguished the colossal size and luxury of the architectural decoration.But they surpassed its magnificence baths, built in the southern part of the Quirinal Hill emperor Diocletian (284-305 AD.).During the reign of Emperor Constantine the Great (306-334 AD.) Only in Rome, there were 15 huge term.The ruins of three of them.still exist.By the way, one of the Diocletian Michelangelo turned into the largest after St. Peter's Church in Rome.
Just how important place in the life of the Romans occupied the terms and procedures carried out there especially, evidenced by the numerous reviews of these prominent Romans.
About therms and love for them wrote the Roman writers and scientists Varro, Columella, Pliny the Elder, Seneca, doctors Asklepiad and Galen, and many generals.
The fate of a great lover of baths, a prominent philosopher of Rome, Seneca, ended his life in the bath.The essence of the story is.Being at one time tutor of Nero, Seneca, seeing as the emperor and the empire more and more wallowing in vice and fulness, he began to call the emperor and society abstinence and moderation.He exclaimed: "You're crazy, you have gone astray, you do not know the price of a single thing!" These and other statements of Seneca, including a tyrant address, led to the fact that he was accused of conspiracy and only "grace "gave his former tutor and favorite of Nero: he gave Seneca the right to choose the method of execution, and to be his own executioner.
Seneca decided to commit suicide by slashing veins.(His fate decided to separate and his wife.) Due to the advanced age and poor nutrition (he was a vegetarian) blood from Seneca flowed painfully slow. "With amazing courage and presence of mind, peculiar to all ancient sages, Seneca, bleeding, dictated presentfriends your last words. But since suffering his stretched unbearably long, Seneca took poison. But the poison has not reached the goal. Then, at his request, was demolished dying in the steam room, where he suffocated.
As already mentioned, in Rome's bathsThey were borrowed by other countries. The ruins of them are found in France and England, on the banks of the Rhine and the Danube, in Africa and elsewhere. The most complete picture of the ancient Roman baths, on the location of the premises and interior design give the preserved baths opened among the ruins of Pompeii.
move to another country, the Roman baths were modified example, in Turkey they have turned into a Turkish bath, in which the pairs, for example, receive an original way:. stone floor was warmed with hot air, and then it poured with hot water, resulting in a pair.Turkish type baths are widely spread in many countries of the Middle East.
Baths, as a means to purity and cleanliness, is a virtue for a long time as a guarantee of health, enjoined by Islam.According to Islam, the daily washing of the body raised to the degree of religious dogma.
in England, Ireland, Roman bath also evolved.It has become a "pure air" temperature it does not rise above 60-65 °.Under the floor and in the walls of the bath are special tube through which a stream of hot air, and thus in the bath creates the desired temperature.
closest to the Russian bath is a sauna (sauna).As in Russian and Finnish baths pairs formed in furnaces, stoves by pouring water or solutions of aromatic hot stones and humidity and Finnish Russian baths depends on how often and how much water is poured on the hot stones.
Bathhouses and warm baths of the Jews appeared only after meeting with Greek civilization.But long before that, since the time of Moses, the Jews have the custom of daily ablutions, although in Palestine and surrounding areas of precipitation are very rare and scarce, so the water is always spent efficiently.High purity required of priests, both of the persons entering into a closer relationship with God;in front of the tabernacle hung a copper wash basin, from which the priests washed their hands and feet when entering the sanctuary.
According to the Talmud, even the "Nazar, who was supposed to be carefully monitored to ensure that no single hair fell from his head, allowed to rub the face, hands and feet of ash and sand, despite the fact that in this way he risked losing a few hairs."In addition to soda and sand, for rubbing a person ate crushed brick powder, pepper powder and soap from waste sesame mixed with jasmine flowers.But these drugs used in exceptional cases, usually the same content with washing in cold water - in the morning and warm - in the evenings.The Talmud says: "A little bit of cold water in the morning and the washing of hands and feet in hot water in the evening - it is better for health than any possible medication."
considered dangerous to touch the eye unwashed hand after a night's sleep and needed triple throwing hands in the morning, and that to date the Jews considered mandatory.
Jewish bathing place were the pits and cisterns were located in the yards, and is filled with rain water.Bathed in caves filled with water from rain flows or streams.Arranged and thermal baths, but on Saturday they were forbidden to swim in, as on Saturdays is not allowed to stoke the furnace or bonfires.
After becoming acquainted with the Greek civilization, the Jews were baths and warm baths.Normal Jewish bath consisted of three premises: 1) the reception, where all were dressed, resting before bathing;2) changing room, dressing room;3) facilities for sweating.In the interior, where there is a pool, visitors were naked.
for noble people were added to the fuel incense.Furnace for heating bath was under the ground, she heated the boilers at the top.
When entering and leaving the baths to pray, not to slip on the marble floor.Incidentally, one such case is described in the Talmud.
In the bath were talks that the so-called "bath."Benches in the baths were marble and the room for sweating - plank as sitting on the marble was impossible - they were hot.For wiping used utiralniki or sheets.After the bath definitely drank a glass of wine.The bath had a staff serving: utiralschiki, barbers, cleaners, natiralschiki fragranced body oblivalschiki (poured after a bath with warm or cold water).
Since Saturday the Jews hot bathing is prohibited, after Saturday, Sunday all went to the bath.It was considered indecent joint washing in the bath with the persons to whom their rank or personal relationship should feel a special relationship.It was impossible to wash in the bath together with the king or the high priest, the pupil with the teacher.
The Jewish baths were not allowed to utter the word "Torah" (the sacred book of the Jews) and forbidden to greet each other.There were also so-called ritual bath in which the water was supposed to be running, and the pool capacity of at least 120 gallons.were particularly common Jewish ritual baths in the Middle Ages.Observant Jews about purifying bath.Menstruating women bathed only in ritual baths with running water.
The ancient Greeks knew a warm bath before the time of Homer.Bani in Greece appeared in the middle of the VIII century BCBath was arranged as follows: in the middle of the room placed the stove heats and two adjacent rooms, which soared.Greek women used to spend all morning in a luxury ablution: maids rubbed their fragrant ointments and sprayed with perfume.Hair rubbed fragrant substances on the head, combed weaving and cleaned.Then pampered beauties dressed in expensive fabrics.
We Macedonians in ancient custom of bathing in the bath with men and women.Homer, describing the lovely Polikastiyu, says the young daughter of Nestor Telemachus accompanied herself in a bath, and the innocent Evkriksis was in the bath with Ulysses.
In 70 BCofficials watched the order and decorum in the bath.Even my father could not have been in the bath with their children.But later, when the "debauchery banished shame," then women began to wash with men.Landlords baths lured into a bath of young people surrounding them with beautiful women, and the elderly went here "only for drunkenness lyubostrastnyh their views."
Speaking of Greece, not to mention the appreciation that gave bath procedures such great Greeks like Hippocrates, Homer, Solon, Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, and many others.They all pointed out the important role of health-hygienic baths.Socrates, for example, said that "bath cleanses not only my body but also my whole being."
generally agreed that in Greece the bath appeared before all the Spartans, differs from its fellow body beauty, athleticism and modest way of life.
no less admiration for the Greeks and caused the appearance of the Egyptians, which differed beauty, good health.The father of history, Herodotus considered fanatical Egyptians Neat.He wrote: "Double, double bottom and the Egyptian priests make omoponie night.Everywhere baths that are well arranged and accessible to everyone. "
course, ordinary Egyptians probably did not attend bath as often as priests, but used them yet quite often.It is because of the strict observance of hygienic rules Egyptians looked as Herodotus called them "the healthiest people in the world."
Along with bath procedures Egyptians actively used, and such components of a healthy lifestyle, a moderate diet, gymnastics, water treatments, massages, baths, and of course, bath.About the baths mentioned in many ancient Egyptian papyri.
Herodotus and dress attracted Egyptians who wore lightweight linen garments, always freshly laundered.Linen for the Egyptians was the symbol of "purity, light and fidelity."
With the fall of the Roman Empire and the spread of Christianity, prohibiting the use of public baths and baths (they were considered immoral institutions), the construction of the baths almost everywhere ceased, bath business went into decline.As a result, personal hygiene both urban and rural residents was at such a low level that made possible all sorts of diseases associated with unhygienic condition of the body, especially parasitic, which covers a huge mass of people.Lice, scabies, different fungal skin diseases have mass distribution.All of Europe zaparshivela for many decades.The decline, which began in the Middle Ages, lasted until the beginning of the XIX century.
And this despite the fact that Europe had already established and widely entered the life of views on the cleanliness and health of such outstanding physicians, philosophers like Hippocrates, Avicenna, Galen, who clearly believed bath a powerful tool for maintaining the health and treatment of manydiseases.
For example Avicenna in his great scientific work "Canon of Medicine" has developed advanced even for our time hygienic standards.This work is an encyclopedia of the correct way of life: how to eat, rest, treatment, work, move, use the healing power of nature to enjoy, as well as the means by which to monitor their body, what natural remedies are used as cosmetic.
Avicenna could not ignore such a powerful and recreational and therapeutic agent as a sauna.