Massage using mechanized devices
In the practice of the hardware types of massage most commonly used vibration, pneumatic, hydro-massage, ultrasound and baromassazh, as well as various combinations thereof.
vibrating massage. Vibration therapy is one of the oldest methods of physiotherapy, developed in accordance with the technical capabilities of a given period.Initially vibrators driven by manually type sewing machine foot or even with tuning forks of different designs.
Principles vibration excitation can be:
1) electromotive - via an eccentric;
2) Electromagnetic - by passing an alternating electric current through the electromagnet;
3) pneumatic - by alternating air pressure;
4) Hydraulic - due to variable water pressure generated by the compressor.
In modern devices for vibration massage most commonly used motors.The defining features are vibration amplitude and frequency of oscillation.
amplitude vibrations - it is the deviation from the point of stable position (in mm).The larger it is, the deeper into the tissue pe
oscillation frequency - is the amount of movement of the point across the state steady state at a time.It is measured in Hertz.Hertz - is one complete oscillation of the 1.Practically used frequency sound range from 16 to 2000 Hz.
transmission vibrations from the machine body massaged going through different shape and hardness-vibratody nozzle.For the energetic and profound impact on the fabric used vibrators solid (metal, plastic, hard rubber);for a more gentle and surface effects - soft (rubber sponge).
According to the degree of vibration propagation are general and local action.
Washer common action because of the high cost, bulkiness and heaviness is currently not widespread.
significantly increasing application received aids intended for local action.This is explained as follows: firstly, they are cheap, portable, easy to use, - and, secondly, the local vibration has not only local but also reflex action, affecting organs and systems are located far from the portion between vibrating.
Physiological effects of vibration massage is very varied and depends on the frequency, amplitude and duration of the vibration (AJ Kramer).By vibratory action the most sensitive stimulus vascular, muscular and nervous (particularly vegetative) system.In the mechanism of the therapeutic effect of vibration it is of great importance to their analgesic effect in connection with the development of protective inhibition in cortical cells.However, in place anesthetic effect is more expressed effects under the action of vibration at a frequency of 100 Hz, 50 Hz.
Fig.118. Vertical vibration.
Under the influence of mechanical vibrations in the place of impact there is a sensation of heat, found the local hyperemia (redness) and fever (and to a greater extent - with increasing frequency vibrations applied procedures or duration).After the first treatment increases muscle tissue oxygen uptake and performance, activated redox processes and the system of the pituitary-adrenal cortex.
nature of the organism's response to vibration exposure depends not only on the frequency and amplitude of mechanical oscillations, the duration of the procedure, but also on the impact of localization.For example, at a frequency of 100 Hz is more often observed increase in blood pressure and increased heart rate, but at lower frequencies - lowering blood pressure and slowing heart rate.
Vibromassage can be carried out by the labile and stable methods.Labile technique is that vibratod constantly moves without departing from the skin massaged area is mainly along the lymph flow, that is, to the nearest lymph nodes.When the technique vibratod is stable in one place for 3 seconds or more (up to several minutes).
vibratodov main options are the following location: vertical (Figure 118.), Horizontal (119 Fig.) Horizontal and vertical (Figure 120.) With respect to the massaged area.
Fig.119. The horizontal vibration.
Fig.120. Vertical horizontal vibration.
The choice vibratoda depends on the form and extent of the massaged surface.They can be flat with an adjoining surface, concave, spherical, and drums.
vibrating massage techniques in the form of motion are divided into the following:
1) straight - Motion made perfectly straight line massaged area and mainly in the course of lymph flow (Figure 121, a).the pressure exerted by hand on vibratod, in this case, the minimum, the vibrations applied to the skin and subcutaneous tissue (imitation manual receive "stroking");.
2) zigzag (Fig 121, b) - a hand holding vibratod additionally performs shaking from side to side;
3) spiral (Figure 121, c) -. Vibratod pressure may be the average force (4.2 kg), when the vibrations are propagated to the skin and muscles (imitation manual reception "rubbing") and a large (up to 9 kgf)- the vibration penetrates through tissue to bone (imitation manual receive "kneading");
4) circular - most commonly used in some of the local area in order to eliminate hyper muscle (Fig 121 g).
5) shtrihoobraznye - made 2-3 moves back and forth (Figure 121, etc.).
6) transverse - used in large volume massage areas: the back and the rear surface of the lower limb (Figure 121, e)..
Fig.121. Possible hardware attachments movements.
and - straightforward;b - a zigzag;in - spiral;Mr. - circular;d - shtrihoobraznoe;e - cross.
Fig.122. The vibration massage in the thigh with a spiral motion nozzles EMA-2 machine.
Fig.123. Elektromassazhny apparatus "Elva" with attachments.
and - flat;b - with spherical projections;in - bell-sucker;Mr. - spinous.
Vibromassage can be carried out daily, every other day or 2-3 times in a row, followed by a one-day break.The optimum exposure time for one area - from 3 to 5 minutes.Number of massages is determined individually and depends on the general condition of the body and its reaction to the effect of vibration (usually 10-15 sessions).
to local vibration in our country issued the following devices: EMA-2 N. Vasilyeva design, VMP-1, BM-1, "Fit", "Elva" TEM-1, "Sport", "Tonus"mechanical apparatus MG Babiy and others.
elektromassazhnogo operating principle of the machine EMA-2 is that air pressure drops from the cylinder unit through rubber hoses are transmitted to the two drums or rubber nozzles at frequencies up to 50 Hz.Mainly used labile technique and all the basic "versions of the location and movement vibratodov on the massaged area.
While pressing vibratodov massaged to the surface with a force of 0.2-1.0 kg and move them at a rate of 3 to 4 cm / sec simulated manual. welcome .Press strokes with a force of 2-4 kg and a speed of 5-10 cm / s simulates rubbing, and with the strength of 5-9 kg and a speed of 2-3 cm / s -. kneading (. Figure 122)
In general massageon areas of the body recommended a sequence: the back, including the collar region (3 min), lower back and buttock (2 min), thigh (3 min) and the tibia (2 minutes) of one limb and then another, the front surface of one lower limb from the bottom up (4 min), then the other breast (1 min), one upper limb from the top down (3 minutes), then another. In general testimony massage ends with a massage of the abdomen area.
general scheme of a massage sequence in areas of the body with the help of EMA-2 is used for massage and executed by other devices.
Effective and combined massage, that is a combination of manual massage with vibration.Method it is as follows: after manual techniques stroking, rubbing, kneading vibration is applied for about 1-3 minutes on the same area.The session ends with other techniques of manual massage.Mechanical vibration, having a strong influence of reflex significantly complements and enhances the physiological effects of manual massage.
Vibrating devices for massage - model VMP-1 (50 Hz with adjustable amplitude of 0.2-2 mm) Vibrating VM-1 (57 Hz and 0,11-0,07 mm, respectively) and "Fit" (50 and100 Hz) - used not only cosmetic, but also for therapeutic purposes in view of the above guidelines.
effective for self-massage and simple to use is a new electric concussor "Elva" (Fig. 123).Vibration with a frequency of 100 Hz and an amplitude of 4 mm is transferred to the massaged area four removable nozzle: flat, spherical projections, with the bells-suckers to massage the back, abdomen and limbs and of thorns (to massage the neck and head).
Less convenient is elektromassazherny machine TEM-1 ( "Elmaz"), although it has adjustable vibration frequency of 50 Hz and 100 (Fig. 124).With the help of this device, despite its portability and accessibility, it can only be used to carry out a stable technique and massage in one area of the body.Changing the position of the patient creates additional difficulties for the masseur and massaged for itself.
Fig.124. Elektromassazhny machine type "Elmaz".
1 - vibrating platform;2 - vibration frequency control.
avtomassazherah In "Sport" (AM-2), and "Tonus" (AM-1) vibration with a frequency of 45-50 Hz and amplitude of 12 mm and 2-3 mm acting on the massaged area through a massage belt.The amplitude of vibration is regulated by a massed force of belt tensioning, equal to an average of 7-8 kg.
Such devices abroad have been widely used in the form of machines, for example, in Vienna, in the Park exhibition and recreation, and hotels in the Americas, Japan, in sanatoriums.Total self-massage session for 10 to 15 minutes, these devices start in a standing position with the back and waist - 3 minutes (Figure 125.), Then the gluteal area - 2 minutes and hips - 3 minutes (Figure 126.).Legs and feet (Fig. 127) massaged for 2 minutes in a sitting position, and then kneaded for 1-2 min displaces the vibrating belt to the upper body.Along with him in a sitting position massaged the upper limbs - 3 minutes (Figure 128.).Naturally, the time for self-massage increases if the limbs are massaged separately.
Fig.G26.Massage the buttocks and thighs.
Fig.127. Massage shin.
Fig.125 Massage of the back and waist using avtomassazherov "Sport" and "Tonus".
Stationary mechanical apparatus MG Babiy can simultaneously in the horizontal and vertical direction to transfer not only vibration, but also mimic the basic manual massage techniques: stroking, rubbing and kneading.The total duration of a massage 12-15 minutes, but not more than 5 minutes for each area, accelerates the recovery efficiency, especially when subjected to fatigued muscle system.Techniques for therapeutic use constructed mechanical massage depending on the nature of the pathological process and its localization.
Recently, vibratory massage was applied in the form of still gidrovibromassazha (a combination effect of vibration and water medium) or in the form pneumovibromassage (combination of vibration with the suction action of air).
Gidrovibromassazh - a new type of massage, its essence is the transfer of mechanical vibrations through the water layer fabrics using the "Wave" device (Fig. 129).Vibratory waves of water directed to the desired area of the body with a frequency of 10-200 Hz for 12- 15 minutes.Baths can be fresh, mineral, pine and so on. E., That is, at the same time the mechanical and hydrothermal influence joins chemical attack.Gidrovibromassazh currently used in the treatment of diseases, in particular the peripheral nervous system injuries.
Fig.129. "Wave" device for gidrovibromassazha type.
pneumovibromassage performed using EMA-2 apparatus in which the vibration effect through a funnel nozzle by squeezing and dilution air flowing from the cylinder unit.The massage heads move in a straight line, simulating manual reception stroking, zigzag - by rubbing and circular movements - kneading.
pneumovibromassage General Session is held for 25-30 minutes according to the scheme of the spin - 3 minutes, buttocks - 2 minutes, thigh - 2 minutes, shin - 1 minute of one limb and then another;drumstick and thigh forelimb - 3 minutes, the chest - 2 minutes, the hands - 4 min.
Termovibromassazh by means of the "Wizard" system, developed by the Tomsk Institute of Spa, which will affect both mechanical vibrations with a frequency of 10 to 100 Hz and a temperature factor of 20 to 50 "C.
In addition to these devices, the industry produced stationarywhich are used in the restoration tsentpax and physiotherapy departments.
pneumomassage. job aids for pneumomassage based on the principle of creating high or low air pressure (Fig. 130).
They consist of an air compressor and pump. mainly used inmedical practice in the form of a vacuum pneumomassage. The mechanism of action is that in drawn into the nozzle (the bank's) skin created congestive hyperemia and caused local hemorrhage. The decay products of tissues and blood have a stimulating effect on the body massaged.
in the absence of the device can be used withthe same effect as so-called cupping massage.Medical Bank installed the treated skin cream so that it was involved skin is not more than 1 cm. Then the fluid movements bank move.When detachment banks it is installed again.It is used mainly in the back.Treatment time 5-7 minutes, frequency - every other day, or - if tolerated - on a daily basis.
Whirlpool. There are several ways of hydromassage: hands under water, in air water jet, water jet cutting under water with high pressure.
Manual massage under water is a combination of manual massage with thermal water treatments in the form of a bath or a rain shower from plain or mineral water.
used thermal and mechanical stimulation (Fig. 131) When water jet massage in air.This type of massage used in physiotherapy practice in the form of Charcot shower or struevoy shower (water jet pressure of 1.5-3 atm is fed into the hose to the tip with a diameter of 1 to 1.5 cm of running water with a temperature of 20-30 "C ona distance of 3-4 meters is carried out on the body massaged from the bottom up for a maximum of 3 minutes), or the Scottish contrast shower (during the procedure of water temperature changes all the time - from 40 to 20 ° C), circular shower (water jet affects massaged withall sides).
130. Pneumomassage in the back.
Fig. 131. Whirlpool jet of water in the air (power shower).
When underwater massage high pressure centrifugal pumps are used, increasing the water pressure. jet up to 12 bar Whirlpool held in special mikrobasseynah size of 210.8 m with the help of "Tangentor" and "Universal" machines, Germany The temperature of fresh water or mineral water -. 34-38 "C.Nozzles have holes of different diameters, and therefore the water jet in different ways affects the tissues of the body (Fig. 132).The intensity of the whirl is achieved by removing the water-jet approximation-reducing or increasing the angle of inclination of the handle to the tip of the massaged part of the body, and also depends on the duration of the session and the water temperature.It must take into account the sensitivity of certain areas of the body to pressure and temperature.The optimum pressure for back massage - 2-5 atm, hip - 2-4 atm, the total duration of the session - 15-35 minutes, all on a course of 6-10 treatments administered.Begin to massage