In response to the introduction into the organism to allergens and develop allergic reactions, which can be specific and nonspecific.The specific reaction precedes
latent period when developing hypersensitivity to the first allergen entered the body - the so-called sensitization.This occurs as a result of production of antibodies - proteins produced in response to only the given allergen, or the appearance of lymphocytes capable of interacting with the
allergen.If at the time of their occurrence allergen is removed from the body, no ill effects were observed.With repeated exposure to the allergen is already sensitized to it the body develops an allergic reaction inter- action of antibodies or lymphocytes with an allergen caused their formation.The result is a series of biochemical processes release chemicals (histamine, serotonin and others.) Damaging the cells, tissues and organs that underlies and allergic diseases.Increased sensitivity of the organism in such specific cases, ieit manifests itself
Non-specific allergic reactions occur during the initial contact with the allergen
without prior sensitization.The allergen enters the body itself causes the formation of substances that damage the cells, tissues and organs.Such reactions include idiosyncrasy - intolerance to certain foods and drugs.
In most cases, the person develops an allergic reaction specific.At the time of manifestation of allergic reactions can be divided into two types -nemedlenny and slow.Immediate reactions considered to dermal and systemic
allergic reactions (respiratory, digestive and other systems), resulting in 15 - 20 minutes after exposure to a specific allergen.They appear blister skin, bronchospasm, gastrointestinal disorders and other functions. For immediate type allergic reactions include anaphylaxis, serum sickness, hay fever, hives, asthma, angioedema.Serum sickness in sensitized people develop
2? 12 days after administration of serum or?- Globulin, and with the re-introduction of serum - much earlier.It is characterized by a painful rash with itching, swelling of the lymph nodes, fever and other symptoms.Angioedema - transient limited
swelling of the skin, subcutaneous tissue and mucous membranes - can occur by ingestion of any allergen;more often on the face, throat, gastrointestinal tract.There are cases and non-allergic - inheritance - angioedema.delayed type reactions develop over many hours and sometimes days.These include increased sensitivity to the bacteria (eg, tuberculosis, brucellosis, glanders, tularemia, etc.), Contact dermatitis in the chemical industry workers, pharmacists, medical personnel.
allergy does not develop in all cases, the exposure of the body to allergens.Heredity plays a role, the state of the nervous and endocrine systems.If both parents, for example, marked pollen allergy, anaphylaxis, atopic (hereditary) form of asthma, some forms of allergic rhinitis, the allergic diseases in children are developing more than 70% of cases;in families where only one sick of the parents, sick children to 50%.
Transmitted not the disease, which affects the parents, and a predisposition to it - the increased ability to respond to an allergic reaction to the action of exogenous allergens.Therefore, depending on the type of allergen and ways to
intake of allergic disease in a child may be manifested in any form.To predispose the development of allergy disorders of the nervous and endocrine systems, as well as brain injury, negative emotions, decreased adrenal function.