The use of wine in medicine
Beverages play an important role in the history and cultural traditions of every nation.From the very early steps of development, no people, no human community can not do without one or another drink, each of which has its own unique history and a beautiful appearance and characteristics of use.As soon as the primitive man realized the critical importance of water and fluids of various kinds to ensure the normal life, he at the same time a feeling of deep respect to water and water sources.
Later, in ancient times, and in the ancient civilizations of the East, Egypt, Babylon, ancient China and ancient India, this primitive cult gradually grew into something more - in general and the whole people worship deified water.Soon there were many people worship different beverages, t. To. God-fearing people have tried in every way to propitiate the gods, bringing them to sacrifice not just water, recruited from nearby source, and something more tasty and fragrant.
mainly engaged in inventing new drinks priests
All ancient cult drinks were somehow related to the natural habitat conditions of the people involved and the peculiarities of its "profiling" of economic activity, whether it is gathering, beekeeping, hunting, fishing and nomadic or sedentary lifestyle.So, in the East and in the Mediterranean since antiquity grown grapes, so the cult drink of the peoples inhabiting this territory, there was wine.In the eastern Slavs as for the production of raw materials considered iconic drinks juices of various berries, birch sap and honey of wild bees.It is because of the raw materials and manufactured Russian traditional folk intoxicating drinks.
With the adoption of Christianity in the pagan cult drinks were ousted Byzantine red wine, which was considered "the blood of Jesus Christ."
history of wine-making has almost the same age as the oldest human occupation - agriculture, and more accurate age wine proved through excavations at the site of ancient settlement.The first written source, which mentions this divine drink - this is the book "Genesis", according to which, after the Flood, Noah, barely landed on dry land, first planted a vineyard.It is known that in ancient Mesopotamia grape wine has been done for a thousand years before the mention in the book "Genesis".Historians have put forward the assumption that the wine was first made in the area of location of the modern Middle East, and then to spread further through the Mariners, carrying a variety of goods to other countries.
Travellers and merchants from Asia Minor once reached the southern coasts of France and Spain, where, and brought wine grape that has become extremely popular among the locals.It is the march of wine in Europe took place long before our era.
Soon the drink, razvozimy ubiquitous navigators, spread almost all over the world.And there is nothing surprising in the fact that in every religion and beliefs of the ancient ancestors always present character, directly associated with this drink, which is recognized as one of the most ancient.In Greek mythology, this "wine" and a handsome god Dionysus was called in ancient Rome, is the mischievous and profligate Bacchus, and in ancient Egypt - the little god vine Shai.
Notable is the fact that in all the traditional beliefs of every nation there was a certain holiday, connected with the wine god who was worshiped in every way, and indulges, he gave expensive gifts and brought holy offerings.To all the people tasted the wine in large quantities during this holiday, merry, sang and danced, and so these gods often equated to the gods of joy and fun, carefree pastime.
a bit further in the Greek mythology, it is possible to know what is really was Dionysus.This Greek god is one of the youngest on the divine Olympus, and the god he was not immediately recognized.So called the man who went on pilgrimages to different countries and teach people to grow grapes, make him an excellent and very pleasant to the taste of the drink.And each time, Dionysus says that he is the messenger of the gods sent down to earth to teach people to plant grapes and make him this divine drink, the secret of which he belonged only to the gods.Dionysus was a beautiful and handsome young man dressed in expensive clothes, and he was able to perform miracles.
Once he was kidnapped by pirates who pozarilis.na rich clothes.They decided that Dionysus - the son of a noble Greek merchant.They decided to sell it to the slave market and to gain for him a lot of money.But every time they tried to tie it together, fell in shackles themselves from his body, and he once again found himself at liberty.The Pirates were perplexed and decided on them someone evil jokes, and when began to look at his ship accomplice Dionysos, saw that the deck is poured fragrant dark liquid that allotment was grape wine.
At the same moment the ship has changed beyond recognition: the mast and rigging uvili vines with juicy and large leaves, between which began to appear bright and beautiful flowers, gradually turned into sparkling in the sun grapes.White sails filled with the warm wind, and the ship was like a huge floating vineyard, all studded with beautiful and fragrant berries, if absorbed all the heat from the sun.
Pirates momentarily froze and began to jump overboard to escape the magic of the unknown, and Dionysus turned all of them into dolphins, whose descendants still escorted ships in the hope of finding the one on which their ancestors had sailed, and re-take human form.They even try to say something to the sailors on their dolphin language, but nobody understands - so commanded the god of wine Dionysus.
Bacchus or Bacchus, or Liber is the Roman god of wine and patron of vineyards.He had a very different character than Dionysus, and became famous for other qualities.Bacchus was an incorrigible merry and loved in the noisy company to roam the forests and meadows, drink grape wine and organize fun events, games and theater performances.
In ancient Egypt, the situation was different: the priests themselves, the ministers of divine worship, they could not determine exactly who to thank for the emergence of grapes - the gods of fertile land on which he grows, or the gods of water, which nourishes the vine.In the end, there was a kind of symbiosis (a joint form of existence) of the gods of fertility and water, which they called the name of Shai.
Compared with Dionysus and Bacchus Shai was existent angel with a calm disposition and a good heart, and therefore in his honor was not satisfied with riotous feasts and orgies.In ancient Egypt, winemakers could only be wealthy people, and as a result Shai was considered not just a small god of the vine, but also a god, symbolizing wealth and riches, abundance and complete satisfaction.
How did our ancestors learned how to make wine and soaking it some time to ordinary juice as a result of fermentation acquired a new property, and became a very different drink with a new flavor?
known that in ancient times, wine was kept before use for a long time - from 15 to 20 years.Moreover, it is stored in special containers - amphorae, which were sealed and buried deep in the ground.The Romans came up with a better way to clogging of blood vessels with wine - Amphora caulk cork and poured on top of the wax, which fully protected the wine from contact with the air.As
cork used a wooden peg, which is drenched in olive oil, to prevent the penetration of air into the vessel.A little later the Gauls smart enough to store and transport the grape wine in wooden barrels, which was very convenient.
radical political changes and upheavals in the concrete life of the country or the empire greatly affects all aspects of her life, including the quality of the wine.This is what happened after the collapse of the great and the vast Roman Empire, t. To. Barbarians were not going to spend valuable time on the cultivation of vineyards and wait until the grape juice will turn into a grape wine.
a result of this neglect the concept of aging wine in general has disappeared from the lives of people for a very long period of time.Barbarians quite suited stinking and tipsy grape Braga, for which preparation is not required neither much time nor much effort, t. To. Could simply dump collected in a vat of grapes, squeeze the juice and let it stand for a while in an uncovered wooden barrel.Instead of this wine, which since ancient times was considered a drink of the gods, people consumed "sour", which had little to do with wine and practically maintained, t. To. This liquid to drink well before the next harvest.
Much later, after a few centuries, some wonderful person again decided to revive the ancient tradition of withstanding the wine for a long time and, thanks to them, and this tradition is thriving so far.After a series of experiments with various additives to wine, it was found that when mixed in certain proportions of wine with some substances it acquires an unrivaled taste and aroma.Among these pioneers was now known to the whole world the monk Perignon, are made by our own recipe especially tasty and enjoyable wine that is produced according to the same recipe to this day and is named after its author's unforgettable.The merits of this monk, ever logged in winemaking history, the invention of a new variety of red wine are not limited to: it turns out, he again decided to use the storage
cork wine than was revived bygone tradition in the mists of time.
With the advent of glass bottles in the wine industry took furor, t. To. The red wine that was stored in them, quality had a higher than wine is stored in barrels ordinary.And as the Europeans settled on the world, and gradually extended their drinks, and soon knew about the wine in the Americas, as well as in Australia and New Zealand.In the middle of the XVI century.descendants of the Spanish conquistadors, who once conquered the local tribes of Indians, began to grow in the fertile soil of the grapes from which soon began to make local red wine, which subsequently spread not only on the territory of modern Mexico, but also in Argentina, Chile and Peru.A little later, at the end of XVHI in., Vineyards were planted impressive areas in California and parts of Australia.
In Europe, recognized leaders in the production of red wines, especially willows fortified, the British considered that particular "hand stuffed" in the production of port wine.This drink appeared in Britain in the middle of the XVII century.and the people became one of the most popular.The impetus for the rapid development of winemaking in England began again, politics - because of the constant wars with neighboring France tax superb in quality French wines has become exorbitant and simply can not afford even the English lords, especially as the French government has decided to take extreme measures and to ceaseto export its wine across the English Channel, or Pas-de-Calais (French style).
Therefore, the British had to drink red wine homemade, but very high quality.Initially port seemed finicky British are not very pleasant to the taste, but t. To. The negotiations with the enemy nor to no avail, the war continued, and the population of Albion is nothing else to do but to be content with what they produced themselves.
British decided to transport wine from the distant and sunny Portugal whose wines in quality and taste properties are much inferior to the French, but they were better than the English.
way, Portugal, which is engaged in winemaking from about I in.BC.e., called a land of wine.Here only on the slate soil and climate conditions unique and share-Ero s Du hands of hereditary winemakers with their intuition and experience accumulated over the centuries created a work of art - wine Porto.
Porto and other varieties of Portuguese wines were transported by sea to the United Kingdom.For during the long sea voyage Portuguese wines are not spoiled and did not begin again wandering, they began to add a small amount of strong brandy.
The result was a new drink, whose taste was very pleasant and liked the British.Soon this wine, port wine dubbed the title of the Portuguese port city from which recovering ships wine to England and spread around the world.
Thus, port its origin is obliged to constant war and trade conflicts that took place between the eternal enemies - Britain and France.Accustomed to an exquisite and fine French wines, the British aristocrats initially "turned up nose" of the domestic product, and then on imported Portuguese wine, but there was no alternative, and they had to also go first to the local alcohol products, and then to the world-famousport wine.Soon, the British are so accustomed to the specific taste of port, that, besides him, could not have anything to drink and began to consider this drink symbol of his country, along with the famous English oatmeal.
Such drastic changes have occurred in France at that time, which has to be regarded as a world leader in the production of quality wines with a delicate taste.All the French kings, without exception, have been known to gourmets and connoisseurs of wines, and therefore one of the important state tasks was the annual production of the corresponding quantity of wine of certain varieties and to ensure constant supply to the court of His Majesty.It is known that special care of the state of wine, which had a decisive influence on the financial condition of the wine-making powers, showed Napoleon III, who consulted with a number of well-known winemakers and chemists on annual corruption huge amount of wine.The job was given and Louis Pasteur, who, after many tests and experiments failed to prove that for the normal maturation of the wine of the highest quality still needs some air, although I felt that the better clogged with young wine bottle, the better it will turn out.
Louis Pasteur proved that just a small amount of air necessary for the normal maturation of wine, and a bottle of wine it must be a certain amount.Pasteur also determined that the quality, flavor and taste of the wine affects barrel in which it is stored, and subsequent pumping process, during which the wine "breathe" and absorb oxygen.
To our great joy, the end of the XIX century.almost all the old and even the ancient winemaking tradition, many of the subtleties of the production and aging of alcoholic beverage were revived and began to actively use and develop many of the winemakers of the time.
winemakers producing the English port, quickly prospered and became very influential and notable people, whose opinion is always taken into account in dealing with a particular issue.Gradually, people are so used to the wine that simply could not imagine my life without the daily cup of port wine, quality red or rose wine, which, as noted a few centuries ago, gives strength and cleanses the blood.
gradual evolution, which took place in the field of wine-making, the emergence of a qualitatively new methods and innovations during the process of fermentation and during exposure of the future of wine led to the fact that over time, the quality wines are getting better and better, and their variety is simply amazing.
But at the end of the XIX century.