Eye Treatment in schools : methods , disappointments
No other section of ophthalmology, even on issues of accommodation, such has not been the subject of numerous studies and discussions, as the section dealing with the causes and prevention of myopia.Since then, it has been suggested that hyperopia is due to a congenital deformation of the eyeball, and up until recently did not have assumed that in most cases, astigmatism is also a congenital condition, had been taken virtually no action to find explanations for their origin or prophylacticaction against them - it just did not think.Myopia but apparently, is an acquired condition.Consequently, the solution to this problem, which many prominent people have devoted years of their work, is of immense practical importance.
were collected and still collected extensive statistical data regarding the frequency of occurrence of myopia.On it were written the whole mountain literature.But very little that will become clear after careful review of this material, but most of it leaves the reader in a state of utter
There is no doubt, however, that most of the children when they go to school free of this type of visual impairment and that the frequency and the degree of myopia is increasing steadily as the continuation of the educational process.Professor Kohno Hermann (Hermann Cohn), whose report on its investigations eyes more than ten thousand children in Germany for the first time has attracted everyone's attention to this issue, found myopia less than 1% of patients in Realschulen, at 30-35% - at school and at 53-64% in vocational schools.His studies were repeated in many cities of Europe and America and everywhere have been confirmed, despite some differences in the percentages.
Myopia was unanimously attributed to the excessive use of the eyes for a short distance.Although, based on the theory that the lens is the agent of accommodation, it is difficult to understand why work at close range should lead to such an effect.If we assume that the accommodation made elongation of the eyeball, it is easy to understand why an excessive amount of accommodation should it cause permanent elongation.But why the increased demand for the accommodative power of the lens must not produce a change in the shape of the lens, and the shape of the eyeball?In this respect there have been numerous assumptions, but none of them were unable to meet the way to explain this phenomenon.
For children, many experts believe that because of the eye at an early age more susceptible than in adulthood, they are unable to withstand the alleged intraocular pressure produced work at close range.If patients initially there were other errors of refraction, such as giperme Tropez and astigmatism, which are considered innate, it was assumed that the accommodative effort clear vision leads to irritation and stress, that stimulates the development of myopia.When myopia appear in adults, explaining appropriately modified to fit them to the present case.Moreover, the fact that quite often myopia was observed among the peasants and other people who do not use their eyes for near work, made a number of experts share this anomaly into two groups, one of which is associated with the work at close range, and the other is not related tosuch work was conveniently attributed to the influence of hereditary factors.
Since abandon the educational system was impossible, attempts have been made to minimize the alleged harmful effects of reading, writing and other work near, required by the system.Various experts have been carefully designed down detailed rules concerning the font size to be used in school textbooks, line length, the gaps between them, the distance over which should keep the book, the forces of light and lighting arrangement, the party structure, the length of time during which the eyesThey can be used without changing the focus, etc.There were even invented special stops for a person to keep an eye on the prescribed distance from the party and prevent slouching, which is believed to cause the accumulation of blood in the eyeball and thus contributes to its elongation.The Germans with their characteristic thoroughness really used these instruments of torture.Kohno never allow their children to write without them, "even when they were sitting at the best what you can think of, the party."
results of these preventive measures have disappointed.Some researchers have noted a slight decrease in the percentage rule myopia in schools where these transformations were applied, but in general, it was not possible to eliminate the harmful effects of the educational process.
further study of the problem only added to the difficulties.At the same time it showed a tendency to remove a large part of the previously ascribed to them the responsibility of schools for the production of myopia.Thus, the American Encyclopedia of Ophthalmology (American Encyclopedia of Ophthalmology) indicates that "the theory that myopia is caused by work at close range, burdened with life in urban environments and poorly osvschennymi premises, gradually give way to statistical data".
Studies, for example, in London, where the school is very carefully selected, to detect any possible depending on the state of view of various sanitary, social and racial factors against children showed that the share of suffering myopia in better lit classroom turnedhigher than in the classes whose conditions were inferior, although higher degrees of myopia were more frequent in the latter case.
It was also found that in schools where a slight amount of work performed at close range, myopia occurs just as often as in those schools where the need for accommodative ability of the eye were higher.Moreover, only a minority become myopic children, despite the fact that they are all almost the same effects.Even in one and the same child may be a myopic eye, while the other will be normal.According to the theory that myopia is the result of some external influence, which is exposed to the eyes, it is impossible to explain why the same conditions of life the eyes of different people, and two eyes of the same person behave differently.
Because of the difficulties in agreeing the facts with the previously proposed theories tendency Registry myopia impact of hereditary factors.However, no satisfactory evidence of this point of view in the future were put forward.A convincing argument against this theory was the fact that the savages who have always had good vision, as fast as other people become myopic when they were subjected to the conditions of civilized life, as happened with the Indian from Kar-laylskogo Institute.
prevalence of myopia, dissatisfaction with all the explanations of its origin and the futility of it all prevention methods has led some authors to conclude that the elongated eyeball - is a natural physiological adaptation to the needs of civilization.Against this view, you can nominate two indisputable argument.The first - is that the myopic eye does not see even at close range as well as normal.The second package is that the defect tends to progress with very serious consequences, often pumped blindness.
If nature has tried to adapt to civilization eye conditions by lengthening of the eyeball, she did not do it in the best way.It is known that many experts admit the existence of two types of myopia: the minimum physiological and pathological harmfulness.Because to say with certainty whether the case is progressing or not, it is impossible, then it recognition, even if it is correct, is more theoretical than practical value.
Hundreds of years of work we have plunged into a quagmire of despair and contradictions in the wrong direction.But in the true light of the problem it is very simple.Based on the facts, it is easy to understand why all previous attempts to prevent myopia were unsuccessful.All of them were aimed at reducing the impact of stress on the eyes when performing work at close range, forgetting about the effort to see distant objects and completely ignoring the mental stress, which is the basis of eyestrain.
There are many differences between the conditions suffered by the children of primitive people, and the conditions in which the children of the civilized races spend years of their development, not to mention such a well-known fact that the last study on the books and write on the paper, and the first did not do it.In the process of education civilized children spend hours each day locked in four walls under the supervision of teachers who are sometimes nervous and irritable.They are even forced to stay for extended periods of time in the same position.Those things that they need to learn, can be presented in the form of a completely uninteresting.At the same time they have to constantly think more about getting good grades and praise, rather than on the acquisition of knowledge for its own sake.
Some children tolerate these unnatural conditions are better than others.But many can not resist the stress.Thus, schools are breeding grounds not only myopic but also all other types of refractive errors.