People with poor vision always marked illusion of .There they are in people with normal vision, but if the illusion of normal vision are testament to relaxing, the illusions of imperfect sight are evidence of stress.Some people from the error of refraction is a bit of illusion, while others, many because stress causing Anamaliya refraction is not the same strain that is responsible for the illusion.
illusions of imperfect sight may be associated with the color, size, position and shape of the objects under consideration.They may include the appearance of things that are not in reality, various other odd and interesting phenomena.
When a person sees a black letter and claims that it is gray, brown, blue or green, it means that he suffers from an illusion of color.This phenomenon is characterized by what is called color blindness.A person with color blindness can not distinguish between colors, usually blue and green, and its inability to it is permanent.A person suffering from an illu
Large letters may seem small or, on the contrary, small letters may appear larger.One letter may seem having a normal size, while the other letter of the same size and the same distance, it may seem more or less in size.The letter may seem having a normal size in the near point and at a distance, but has only half this size in the middle distance.When a person is able to accurately judge the amount of letters from all distances up to 20 feet, his vision is normal.If different distances this size it seems different, he suffers delusions size.At large distances, the size of the judgment is always imperfect, because at such distances and imperfect vision, although it is excellent at a normal distance.Stars seem points because the eye for objects at such distances have imperfect vision.Candle considered to half a mile, it appears smaller in size than the near-point, but if it is viewed through a telescope, which gives perfect vision at this distance, it would appear the same as the near point.With the improvement of the ability to judge the size of the objects is improved.
correction of errors of refraction glasses rarely allows a person to the same right to judge the size, as does the normal eye.The ability to do this can vary significantly among people who have the same degree of refractive error.One person from 10 diopters of myopia, corrected glasses may be able to (which happens very rarely) the right to judge the size of the object.The other man, with the same degree of myopia and the same glasses, can see these things, like having only half or a third of its normal size.This shows that the refractive errors have little to do with the wrong size perception.
illusion of form
Round letters may appear square or triangular, straight letters may appear bent, correct form letter may seem to have a grid or cross its center.In short, one can observe an indefinite number of varying shapes.The main factors of this type of imperfect sight are the lighting, distance and environment.Many people can see form some letters correctly when other letters covered with something, but are unable to do so, if they are visible.Some people help mark the position of letters with the help of a pointer.Another pointer is so prevents that with him they can not see the letter as well as without it.
NUMBER OF ILLUSIONS
People with low vision often see with both eyes together, with each eye separately, or only one eye multiple images.The manner of display of multiple images is sometimes very curious.For example, one patient with presbyopia normally read word HAS both eyes.He correctly read the word of the PHONES left eye, but when I read his right eye, he saw the letter "P" is a double, while the virtual image was slightly left of the real.The left eye, despite the fact that he had normal vision to the PHONES words, the set pin axis when it is in the upright position.In this head remained single and multiply only when it changed to the horizontal pins.But then it became a single axis.When the tip of the pin was placed below some very small letters, sometimes double vision edge despite the fact that the single letter remained.
No refraction can not explain this phenomenon.This error is only one of the brain.The provisions in which multiple images are located, are endless.Sometimes they are arranged vertically, and sometimes - horizontally or obliquely, and sometimes in a circle, a triangle or other geometric shapes.Their number may vary from two to three, four or more.They can be fixed, or more or less rapidly changing its position.They are also distinguished by a certain degree of diversity in terms of color, including white (whiter even than the background color).
point, following a letter on the same rank as the bottom of the letter, might seem to change his position a wide variety of interesting ways.It can change the distance between it and the letter.It can be on the other side letters, above or below the line.Some people see letters in the wrong order.In the case of the words AND, for example, a letter «D» can take the place of the letter «N» or the first letter can be swapped with the latter.
All these phenomena are mental illusions.Letters sometimes seem more distant than it actually is.Small letters from a distance of 20 feet can be viewed from a distance seem a mile.People suffering from illusions distance, ask whether the changed position of the checklist.
ILLUSIONS RELATED existing objects
When the eye has poor vision, the brain does not only distort what the eye sees, but is that he sees things that do not exist in reality.Among the illusions of this kind are found floating particles, which are very often appear before his eyes, when the sight is imperfect, and even when it is usually very good.These particles are known in science as the muscae volitantes, or a symptom of "flying flies."Although their presence has no real value, being just a symptom of mental stress, they are so strongly attracted the attention and so much is usually excite people.
ILLUSIONS RELATED additional colors
When the vision is imperfect, the man often after taking his eyes away from the black, white or any other brightly colored object and closing the eyes for a few seconds, it seems that he sees the object painted inadditional or close to an additional color.If a black object on a white background, you will see the white object on a black background.If the red object, it is possible to see the blue, and if it's blue, the object may appear as red.These illusions, known as sequential images can also be seen, although less frequently, and with his eyes open on any background on which a person happens to look.They are often so vivid that they seem real.
illusion of the color SUN
People with normal vision can see the sun white, beleyshim of existing white.But when sight is imperfect, it may seem to have almost any color of the spectrum, red, green, purple, yellow and so on. D. It is known that the sun is often described by people with impaired vision completely black.The setting sun usually appears red due to atmospheric conditions.But in many cases, these conditions are not sufficient to change the color, and do not care for people with poor eyesight, it appears red, and people with normal vision - white.If redness, red sun is an illusion, and not a result of atmospheric conditions, the sun image on the ground glass camera will be white and not red.The rays focused by a magnifying glass will also be white.The same is true for the red moon.
BLIND SPOTS AFTER LOOK AT THE SUN
After looking at the sun, most people see a black or colored spots, which may persist from a few minutes up to a year or more, but never stay forever.These spots are also illusions, and not the result, as is usually said to have any organic change in the eyes.Even total blindness, which sometimes occurs temporarily after looking at the sun, is merely a false impression of the eye of sense perception.
ILLUSIONS RELATED twinkling star
fact that stars twinkle, and is reflected in the songs, and stories.It is usually assumed that this phenomenon is in the order of things.However, it can be proved that the alleged flicker is just a mental illusion.
CAUSE OF ILLUSIONS imperfect sight
All illusions of imperfect sight are the result of mental stress.When, for whatever reason, there is an infringement of mental equilibrium, there is a probability of occurrence of all sorts of illusions.This tension is not only different from the strain that produces an error of refraction, but what we can prove, for every kind of illusion has its own kind of stress.The color change does not necessarily lead to a change in the size or shape of objects, or the appearance of some other illusions.You can clearly see the color of the letter or letters, do not learn at the same time the most letters.To black letters turned into a blue, yellow or letters of other colors, required a subconscious effort to remember or imagine the color you want, while, to change the shape, need a subconscious effort to see the shape in question.With a little practice, anyone can learn how to create the illusion of form and color, consciously straining in the same way that he unconsciously strained.What would not illusion produced this way will be found that this fixing will also eccentric and one of refractive errors.
voltage, which leads to poliopii, again, is different from the strain that creates the illusion of color, size and shape.After several attempts, most people manage to easily produce nolio-copy of at will.Gazing, or mowing the eye, if the voltage is large enough, usually leads to the fact that a person begins to see double images.Watching over the light source, or the letters and trying to see them as well as when you look directly at them, you can create the illusion of multiple light sources or letters arranged vertically.If the voltage is large enough, they can be with a dozen.Watching from the side of the light source or letters or looking away from them under some angle, the image can be built horizontally or inclined but at any angle.
to see objects in the wrong location (for example, to the first letter of the word has taken the place of the latter), is required to resort to the skill of eccentric fixation and learn the mental representation that is different from the usual.
black or painted in other colors specks that are visible when looking at the sun, and strange colors, which sometimes seems to be painted sun are also the result of mental stress.When a man learns to look at the sun without strain, these phenomena immediately disappear.
successive retinal images were attributed to fatigue, which supposedly is so over-stimulated in any color that can no longer perceive it, and looking for a way to facilitate in the shade, additional in relation to the given color.If, for example, it is tired looking at the black beech "C" on the test, it is assumed that the relief will be found in the vision of the "C" white.Such an explanation of the phenomenon is very clever, but hardly true.The eyes can not see when they are closed.If a person is in such a case, it seems that he still sees something, it means that he was subjected to mental illusions to which the retina is irrelevant.They can not see your eyes, and what does not exist in reality.If a person thinks that he sees a white letter "C" on the green wall, where there is nothing of the sort, it is again apparent that he succumbed to mental illusions.Successive image actually indicates a loss of mental control and occurs with one of refractive errors, and since this condition is associated with loss of mental control.Anyone can create a sequence of images at will, trying to see the large letter "C" all equally well, ie. E. Under stress.At the same time it is possible to see an infinitely long way central fixation without such effects.
Although people with visual impairments usually see twinkling stars, they do not need to see them as such.Therefore, it is obvious that voltage which causes a flicker is different from the voltage leading to refraction.If a person is looking at a star, without any attempt to make an effort to see it, it will not flicker.If it starts flickering illusion, it is usually possible to stop, "swinging" star.On the other hand, can be made to blink a planet or moon, even if a person is hard enough to strain to see them.
ILLUSIONS normal vision
Illusions normal vision include central locking phenomenon.When the eye with normal vision looks at the letter on the test, he sees the fixed point better than everyone else.Any other object in view at the same time seems to be less clear.In reality all of the entire letter and letters can be completely black and clear, and the impression that one letter darker than others, or that one part of a letter darker than the remainder, is an illusion.However, the normal eye can move so fast, it seems that the entire line of small letters is visible the same time.Of course, in fact, no such image on the retina does not work.Each letter is seen separately.When letters are considered from a distance of 15-20 feet, and they can not identify, if not done about four movements for each letter.Therefore, to create the impression of simultaneous vision 14 letters on the retina must be created about 60-70 images, each with a point more clearly than the rest.Now, apparently, it is clear that the idea that the letters are seen the same all at once, is no more than an illusion.
Here we are faced with two different types of illusions.In the first case, the impression perceived by the brain corresponds to the image on the retina, but does not correspond to reality.In the second case, a mental perception is in line with reality, but does not match the image on the retina.
normal eye usually sees a letter background whiter than it really is.When looking at the letters with the checklist he sees at the edges of the letters white stripes.When you read the fine print normal eye sees white space between lines and letters and white space open spaces the letters more intense in color than it is in reality.People who can not read the fine print, can also observe this illusion, but less clear.The more clearly visible to this illusion, the better the vision.If it will be possible to submit consciously (with normal vision, it seems to unconsciously), the vision improves.If the line of small print something to hide behind, the strip between them disappear.When the eye with normal vision sees the letters through a magnifying glass, the illusion does not disappear, but the intensity of the white and black falls.