Eye is a miniature camera, in many respects very similar to the camera.However, in one respect, there is between them a significant difference.The photosensitive film in the camera is equally sensitive at every point.The retina is the eye has a point of maximum sensitivity.Any other part of it is less sensitive in proportion to the distance from that point.This point of maximum sensitivity is called the fovea centralis, which literally means "the central pit."
retina, despite the fact that it is an extremely thin shell thickness from 1/80 inch to less than half of this value is an extremely complicated structure.It is composed of 8 layers, only one of which is believed to be associated with the perception of visual images.This layer consists of tiny rod-shaped and kolbochkoobraznyh cells, differing in form and very different distribution in different parts of the retina.a small round elevation is located in the center of the retina that is due to the yellow color, received them after death, and sometime
exact function of rods and cones is unclear, but it is known that the center pit, where all elements except the cones and associated cells practically disappear, is the site of most acute vision.As you move farther from this point of sharpness of vision decreases rapidly.Consequently, the eye with normal vision sees one part of any object that it looks best, and all the rest of the worse in proportion to their distance from the point of maximum visual acuity.Invariable symptom of all abnormal conditions of the eye both functional and organic is that this central fixation is lost.
horizontal cross-section of the eyeball
These circumstances are related to the fact that when the vision is normal, sensitive fovea is normal, but when the vision deteriorates (for whatever reason), pits the sensitivity is reduced to such an extent that the eye sees exactly the same and even betterother parts of the retina.Contrary to what is generally accepted to believe part of the object, as seen best when the vision is normal, it is extremely small.Textbooks say that a 20-foot area, having a diameter of half an inch, can be seen with maximum visual acuity, but anyone who has tried this distance to see every part of even the smallest letters of the Snellen test card table (and their diameter may be less than a quarter of an inch) the samewell at the same time, immediately become myopic.The fact is that the closer the point of view of maximum closer to a mathematical point, which has no area, the better the vision.
reason for this loss of function is the center of mental stress.Since all of the abnormal condition of the eye (both organic and functional) are accompanied by mental stress, absolutely all of them must be accompanied by loss of central fixation.When the brain is tense, eyes are usually more or less blinded.The first center of fades, partially or completely, depending on the strain.If the voltage is large enough in the process all or a large part of the retina may be involved.When the center of the function partially or completely suppressed, the person can no longer see the best point at which he is looking.In this case, the objects for which it does not look right, are seen as good or even better, because the sensitivity of the retina has now become approximately equal in each of its parts, or even better in terms of off-center.Therefore, in all cases of impaired person is unable to see the best part is, what it looks.
This condition sometimes takes so extreme that the person can see far away from the object (as in the direction to make it possible still to see it) and, nevertheless, to see it as well as when looking directly at it.In one case, this state has gone so far that my patient could see only the edge of the retina from the nose.In other words, she did not see the fingers of their hands, when they were held directly in the face, but noticed them when they moved to the edge of the eye.She was not a very significant degree of refractive error, which indicates that although each refraction anomaly is accompanied by eccentric fixation, tension, causing one state is different from the strain that produces a different state.The patient was examined by local specialists and experts in Europe, who attributed her blindness, a disease of the optic nerve or brain.The fact that her vision was restored by relaxation, found that this condition was caused by a mental strain.
eccentric fixation, even at its lower degrees, so unnatural that a few seconds trying to see every part of any square with sides of 3-4 inches from a distance of 20 feet or even less, or an area the size in inches or less in the near-pointequally well can simultaneously result in significant pain and discomfort.At the same time the retinoscope will show that there was error of refraction.This voltage, when it is habitual, leading to all sorts of abnormal states and is the basis of most of the problems with the eyes (both functional and organic nature).However, in chronic nature of the condition of discomfort and pain may be absent.Thus, when a person begins to experience them, it is an encouraging sign.
When the eye seizes central fixation, it is not only the possession of perfect vision, but it is in a perfect state of rest and can be used indefinitely without fatigue.It is open and relaxed, there have been no movements and nervous when he sees any point in the distance, the visual axes are parallel.In other words, there are no muscle weaknesses eye.This fact is not well known.Textbooks say that muscle weaknesses occur in eyes with normal vision, but such cases I have never come across.The muscles of the face and body are also at rest.Further, when such a state as usual, the eye does not appear neither wrinkles nor dark circles.
In most cases, eccentric locking eyes, on the contrary, gets tired quickly, and the very appearance of eccentric fixation is an expression of effort or stress.Ophthalmoscope (an instrument with which we can consider the fundus) shows that the eyeball moves at irregular intervals from side to side, vertically or in other directions.(When examining the optic nerve with the ophthalmoscope may notice shorter movement than by simply tracking the appearance of the eye.) These movements often have such a large amplitude that can be detected by the conventional inspection, and sometimes quite noticeable to be similar to nystagmus (condition in which there is a significant and more or less rhythmic movement of the eyeball from side to side).Routine check or a slight touch of the century in one eye while the other eye sees any object in the near or far point, it is possible to detect and nervous movements century.The visual axis while never parallel and the deviation from the norm could be so noticeable that it is possible to ascertain the state of squint.Other symptoms of eccentric fixation are redness of the conjunctiva and edges of the eyelids, wrinkles around the eyes, dark circles beneath them and tearing.
eccentric fixation is a symptom of stress and decreased by any method, removes it.But in some cases, help bring the person demonstration of the fact of central fixation.When he was through the actual display will realize that not seeing the best of all, what he was looking right, it may still, directing gaze away from any point with sufficient distance from her, to see her is worse than in direct sight of herhe can thus begin to try to reduce the distance from which forced to watch in order to see this point worse.This process of reducing the distance can be continued for as long as he can not look directly at the top of some small letters and see her bottom or worse to look at the bottom of the letter and see the top worse.
The less considered in this way the letter or the shorter the distance at which the patient is forced to look away from a letter to see the opposite part is unclear, the greater the degree of relaxation and better vision.When it will be possible to look at the bottom of a letter and see the top of it worse, or look at the top of the letter and see the bottom worse, it will be possible and the vision of this letter perfectly black and clear.First, such a vision can come only glimpses - a letter clearly detected at some point, and then disappears.But gradually, if the training will continue, the central lock will be familiar.
Most people easily manage to look at the bottom of a large letter "C" on the test, and see the top worse.But in some cases, not only fails to do so, but did not even manage to get rid of the large letters, if the distance allows them to see.Such extreme cases sometimes require considerable ingenuity: first, to show people that he does not see the best of all, what he was looking right, and secondly, to help him to see any object when viewed from the side of it worsethan when you look directly at him.Use as a strong fixation point light source (or two light sources is 5-10 feet apart) have been found useful.Man, when he looks in the direction of the light source, it is easier to see less bright than any black letter worse when you look away from her.Then later do the same with the letter will be a lot easier for him.This method proved to be successful in this case.
woman with vision 3/200 argued that it is better to see the large letter "C" when looking at some point a few feet away from it, rather than when you look directly at her.Her attention was drawn to the fact that her eyes quickly become tired and weakened eyesight, when she looks at objects in a similar way.Then she was asked to look at a bright object about 3 feet away from the card.It is so much riveted her attention, she could see the large letter on the test worse.Then again, look at the letter she was able to see her better.Thus, she showed that she can do one of two things: either look away and see the letter better than she had seen it before, or look to the side and see it worse.Then she learned to see it worse all the time, when she looked three feet away from her.Still later, it gradually with the constant improvement in vision, it is possible to reduce distance has first to two feet, one foot and then up, and finally, six inches.In the end, the patient was able to look at the bottom of the letter and see the top worse, or look at the top of the letter and see her bottom worse.As the training she learned to look this way, and in smaller letters.In the end, she read the ten line (a line that should normally be read from 10 feet) from a distance of 20 feet.The same method she learned to read diamond type at first to 12 inches, and then with a 3-inch.In short, just these simple techniques she learned to see the best of what was sent to her eyes.Of its fully restored.
highest degree of eccentric fixation occur at high degrees of myopia.In such cases, since the best sight in near point vision worse useful to practice this distance.The distance can then be gradually increased until it becomes possible to do the same thing with 20 feet.One of my patients with high myopia told that the farther she looked to one side and a source of electric light, the better she saw him, but alternately views then this source of light in the near-point, away from him, she learned in a shorttime to see it brighter in direct sight of him than when viewed from the side.Later she was able to do the same thing with 20 feet.At that moment she felt a huge sense of relief.No words, she said, can not convey exactly this state.It seemed that every nerve was relaxed, and the feeling of comfort and peace soaked her body.Subsequent progress was rapid.Soon she learned to look at one part of any smallest letters on the Snellen test, seeing the rest worse, allowing it to read the letters from 20 feet.
According to the principle that once burnt child dreads the fire, some people useful conscious visual impairment.When they realize (based on actual demonstration of the facts), what caused the deterioration of their vision, they subconsciously start to avoid the unconscious stress that causes them.Therefore, if the degree of eccentric fixation has not reached its limits, that is, it is possible to further increase it, it is useful to learn to do it.When a person deliberately worsen their vision, producing discomfort and pain even attempt to see the large letter "C" or a whole line of letters equally well at the same time, it can cope better with the unconscious effort of eyes to see all the parts of any small area equally well at the same time.
Learning to see best what is directed straight look, the man is usually more useful to think of the point, is not considered just as visible clearly less than the point at which he is looking, rather than a fixed point, as we see best.This is due to the fact that training on the letters in most cases, tends to amplify the voltage at which the eye is already working.One part of any object seen best only when the mind is satisfied vision most part unclear.When the degree of relaxation is increased, the area of the visible worse, begins to grow until the part is best visible, it will not be just a point.
Limits of view depends on the degree of central fixation.A man may read any pointer to a half-mile away, when he sees all the characters equally well.But when he learns to see one letter better than anyone else, he will be able to read smaller letters, the presence of which there he did not know.The remarkable vision of savages that the naked eye can see the objects for which the majority of civilized people need a telescope is required to central fixation.Some people can see with the naked eye, the rings of Saturn or the moons of Jupiter.This is not due to superiority in the structure of their eyes, and that they have achieved higher than the majority of civilized people, the degree of central fixation.
When the eye looks with central fixation, not only disappear all errors of refraction and functional impairment, but are cured and many organic status.There are no limits of its possibilities, I can not mention.I do not venture to say that glaucoma, incipient cataract and sifilistichesky iritis (inflammation of the iris) can be cured by central fixation, but the fact that these states disappear when it reaches the central fixation, is a fact.Relief is often achieved in a few minutes, but in rare cases, this relief was permanent.Usually, however, the constant improvement of required longer treatment.After other treatments have failed, the central fixation was useful for all kinds of inflammatory conditions, including inflammation of the cornea, iris, conjunctiva, the various layers of the eyeball and even the optic nerve.Central fixation proved to be useful in cases of infections, diseases caused by protein toxicity infected with typhoid fever, influenza, syphilis and gonorrhea.Even with a foreign body in the eye is not mentioned nor redness nor any suffering is kept central fixation.
Since the central fixation is impossible without mental control, central fixation and eye means central fixation psyche.