Feeding habits of the pregnant woman significantly associated with fetal development.As you know, the fetus develops unevenly;particularly fast growth of fetal weight occurs in the last 100 days of pregnancy.In this regard, in the second half of pregnancy, especially during the last 3-4 months, to pay special attention to food pregnant mode.
Diet in the first half of pregnancy must comply with height, weight, age and nature of the employment of women.When overweight building diet during the first half of pregnancy should be designed to prevent weight gain.
Already in the first half of pregnancy is necessary to ensure a sufficient amount of protein in a food female diet.What matters is not only the quantity but also the quality of proteins.It should be remembered that the lack of protein in the diet affects pretty quickly and the negative impact this may persist for a long time, even after the transition to nutritious food.
protein sources in the diet are varied: nature and there are no plants and an
100 grams of meat (boneless), contains about 18 grams of protein, 100 grams of fish - about 15 grams in;100 grams of milk - 5 grams, in 100 grams of cheese - 14 grams in 100 grams of cheese - 20 grams in a single egg - 6 grams per 100 grams of bread - 7.6 grams per 100 grams of cereal - 8.10 grams100 grams of peas - 20 grams of protein.
great importance in the diet of the pregnant woman are milk proteins.Total protein which must be contained in the daily diet of pregnant depends mainly on the type of work.The average daily rate of the protein in the first half of pregnancy is not less than 1.5 grams per 1 kilogram of weight.In physical labor and testimony to the increased supply of the rule should be increased up to 2 grams per 1 kilogram of body weight.In this case at least 50% of the protein must be of animal origin.
Since the second half of pregnancy, the amount of protein in the diet should be increased.Since at this time the body's need for protein increases the mother in connection with the development of the fetus, placenta, mammary glands, increasing the mass of the blood, it is recommended the inclusion in the diet of pregnant high amounts of protein, about 2 grams per 1 kilogram of body weight, t. E. Approximately 110-120 grams per day.
Of the products that contain complete proteins, it is necessary first of all to include in the diet of milk, yogurt, kefir, contributing to better bowel, cheese, cottage cheese, eggs.It should not be excluded from the food and meat and fish, although their use is set to the character of the cooking.If the first half of pregnancy, meat and fish can be consumed in any form (in the form of beef soup, fish soup, fried, boiled and stewed), in the second half of pregnancy, meat and fish broths, especially strong, as well as meat gravies should be avoidedsince during this period they encumber the liver activity, and operating without high load.Soups should be prepared vegetarian sauces - dairy, meat and fish to eat boiled or baked form, avoiding heavily roasted dishes.It is necessary to limit the use of fungal broths.The main source of fat in the body are carbohydrates.Sugar, jam, honey, chocolates, bread, biscuits, potatoes, pasta - basic starchy foods.
100 grams of sugar contains - 95 grams of carbohydrates, 100 grams of sweets - 60-80 grams, 100 grams of cooked - 70 grams, 100 grams of bread - 45-50 grams, 100 grams of cereal and pasta - 70grams in 100 grams of potatoes - 18 grams per 100 grams of root crops - about 10 grams per 100 grams of cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes - about 5 grams of carbohydrates.
special importance to the pregnant woman have a so-called non-food carbohydrates contained in vegetables and fruits in the form of fiber, - they stimulate bowel activity.
Carbohydrates contained in the pubs, cabbage and other vegetables, is not used by the body to form fat.In normal weight women in the first half of pregnancy, she should get from food is not more than 450 grams of carbohydrates a day, avoiding the excess of this amount, even with physical labor or nourishing diet.When overweight pregnant carbohydrate content of the diet should be reduced to 250-300 grams per day.
Along with vegetables and fruits in the diet should include a certain amount of wholemeal bread as a source of dietary fiber and B vitamins
In the second half of pregnancy in the diet should be moderate carbohydrate content, as excessive consumption of them can lead to excessive to addingin weight.
In the last month of pregnancy should limit the consumption of easily digestible carbohydrates:. Sugar, honey, jam, etc.
from the diet of a pregnant, of course, excludes alcoholic beverages.
fats in the diet are not only energy, but also plastic material.The role of fat and increasing the palatability of food.
Physiological intake of fat to 90 grams per day.It can be recommended to the first half of pregnancy.In this amount of fat includes fat contained in the products themselves:. Meat, cheese, milk, doorstep, eggs, etc. directly to food in its natural form and is used for cooking butter, lard, vegetable oil.The butter about 79% fat, ghee, lard, vegetable oils - about 93%.This fat is needed per day about 60 grams.
Along with butter recommended the inclusion in the diet of vegetable oils: sunflower, soybean, and others-about 25 grams per day.
In the second half of pregnancy, the amount of fat and should not exceed 100 grams per day.When overweight should not drastically limit the fat content in the diet;opinion that the tendency to obesity is necessary first of all to limit fat intake, is not quite true;no fats and carbohydrates are a major source of fat accumulation in the body.
pregnant you need to limit the consumption of refractory fats - beef, mutton fat: best consumed in moderation butter, sour cream, cream, and especially oil.
It is advisable to avoid high consumption of foods containing a lot of cholesterol and impede liver function: eggs, bacon, brains.
daily body's need for water is about 35 grams per 1 kilogram of body weight, with a weight of 60 kg is about 2 liters.Much of this rule is found in foods, so when power is varied proportion to the consumption of water in the pure state is not more than 1.2 liters.In this amount of free fluid includes tea, milk, pudding, fruit, soups.Excess fluid intake encumbers the cardiovascular system.In the last period of pregnancy when tendency to edema is advisable to limit the amount of free fluid in the daily diet of about 0.8 liters.
huge role in the diet of a pregnant woman is played vitamins needed for normal development of pregnancy, fetal growth and further development of the newborn.
normal during pregnancy, early onset of childbirth, the normal course of childbirth depend largely on whether there is enough in the mother vitamins such as A, B1, B2, C, D and E.
Throughout intrauterine life the fetus needsin a significant amount of vitamins.
vitamins and hormones come to the fetus from the mother;Only towards the end of pregnancy the fetus develops self hormonal activity.Lack of vitamins in the mother can lead to spontaneous abortion, premature birth.
Vitamin A plays an important role in the prevention of postpartum infections;therefore it is necessary to include in large amounts in the diet in the second half of pregnancy, especially during the last 2 months.
As is known, the most rich in vitamin A has the liver of fish;the need for vitamin A can also be met by the eggs, butter, milk and some vegetables, mainly carrots.
Note that vegetables carotene (a substance turns into the mother's body into vitamin A), in particular carrots, digested more or less satisfactorily only in the fat solution.Because of this, it is necessary to recommend the use of vegetable dishes stewed or fried.
Because B vitamins should pay attention to B1, B2, B6 and B12.Vitamin B1 - thiamine - plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism and has a positive effect on liver function.Together with vitamin C, it is involved in the regulation of water-salt metabolism.All these properties of vitamin B1 is very valuable to a pregnant woman.
Vitamin In 2 part of many enzymes, is involved in the metabolism of iron as well as vitamin B1, it has a positive effect on liver function.Pregnant are encouraged to include in the diet of bread from wheat flour due to particularly large content it vitamins B2, B1 and B6.It is advisable to cook dishes from buckwheat, which is a valuable source of B vitamins
Pregnant women increased need for vitamin C. In addition to the use of food and fruits and vegetables cooked and raw form, it is desirable for the doctor's advice to include in the diet in the form of ascorbic acidpills, tablets, rosehip concentrate either on a daily basis to prepare a decoction of dried rose hips.
The osteoplastic processes fruit plays an important role vitamin D. In the last months of pregnancy intake into the body, it is desirable to increase by inclusion in the diet of 15 grams of fish oil, especially if these months fall on poor sunlight days.
need for vitamin E during pregnancy increases.It can be provided by products of vegetable origin, such as buckwheat, oat groats.
Increased need of pregnant women in mineral salts requires special attention to ensure that their content in the diet was sufficient.In recent more than 3 months from the mother fetus receives and holds in its body a great number of mineral salts, including calcium.
If increased demand for lime is not covered by its content in the diet, the fruit of self-sufficient lime due to the mother's body reserves.In these cases, the fetus to calcium comes primarily from the teeth and bones, and then from the soft tissue (parenchymal organs and muscles) mother.In this connection, when eating disorders during pregnancy in women is sometimes observed the so-called dental caries, which is a consequence of the sharp loss in their lime.
Lowering the amount of calcium does a woman's body are unstable against infection.The amount of calcium in the diet of women by the end of pregnancy must be greater than the normal adult rate of 2-3 times.
calcium salts contained in varying amounts in almost all foods, but some foods calcium is absorbed poorly.In
peas, beans, soybeans, spinach, lettuce, sorrel, for example, there are many calcium salts, but those salts in large part dissolved in the intestine and are not absorbed.Therefore, to provide the body the required amount of calcium should be included in the diet products that contain a considerable number of well-absorbed by the body of calcium salts.These products include milk, milk products, cheese, egg yolk.
Milk and dairy products should always be an integral part of food pregnant.
Special attention in the diet of pregnant woman should be paid to cookery beggars.It plays an important role in water exchange.Excessive consumption of it contributes to the development of edema and supports the inflammatory processes.Usual daily rate of salt intake is 12-15 grams.If the first half of normal pregnancy can be recommended only restriction in the diet of pickles and smoked, in the second half of pregnancy, it is advisable to exclude from the diet of pickles and moderately add salt to food.In the last two months of pregnancy amount of salt should not exceed 5 grams per day.By limiting salt can release excess fluid from the tissue and thereby strengthen and they exchange their function.This disclosure of the birth canal is much more likely, abdominal work intensively in connection with the generic act faster and to a certain extent painkillers.
view of the increasing demands of liver and kidney function it is advisable from the beginning of pregnancy savory significantly limit in the diet and spices such as pepper, mustard, vinegar, and in the second half of pregnancy does exclude them from the diet.To this end, in the second half of pregnancy should be amended in the way of cooking food.
Soups should be mostly vegetarian - in the vegetable broth or milk.Meat or fish should be included in the menu, not more than once a day, and prepare them mainly boiled or lightly fry the prior boiling.Recommended side dishes of vegetables, carrots, beets, rutabagas.