Water exchange body
In many diseases water metabolism in the body is crucial.Thus, in patients with chronic heart failure, hypertension, atherosclerosis, running, diseases of the genitourinary system water and water-salt metabolism is usually
broken and swelling appear.Therefore, the regulation of water-salt metabolism is essential in the treatment of the patient.
Let us first consider the question of the normal water exchange in the human body.
water content in the body of a child at birth is up to 80% of body weight, and then gradually decreases to 65%, and this value remains constant throughout life, regardless of gender and age.
water in the human body may be in the free or in the bound state.Being in a free state, it easily goes out of the cells into the extracellular space in the lymph and blood plasma.If the water is bound proteins, it is held firmly in cells and tissues.In a healthy person regularly observed by the water-salt balance in the body, that is a balance of water and salts, which are both connected,
Water exchange process is a set of drinking water intake, water formation in the oxidation of fats, proteins and carbohydrates, its distribution between the extracellular and intracellular space, on the one hand, and the release of water by the kidneys, lungs, skin and intestine - other.
th in adult human having a weight of 70 kg, the total body water content reaches 50 kg.Of this amount, only 15% from plasma, blood and lymph, the remaining 50% of water contained within the cells in a bound state.The aqueous equilibrium amount of water consumed is equal to the amount of water released.
water balance is the sum of the following variables: number of drinking water - 1000 ml;Water entering the
composition of food products - 720 ml;water formed in the oxidation of fats, proteins and carbohydrates - 320 ml.In sulei, under normal circumstances, a person consumes up to 2.5 liters of water.Of this amount, approximately 1100 ml excreted through the kidneys, 400-450 ml - through the skin 300-350 ml - through the lungs and about 150 ml - faeces.Changing environmental conditions (temperature, pressure, nature of the food), these data can vary greatly in one direction or another.However, the water-salt balance in the body is restored very quickly, so: it is a vital factor.
Regulators water exchange are the central nervous and endocrine systems.Impaired function of the regulation of water-salt metabolism can cause severe changes in exchange and determine any water retention in the body, or, on the contrary, increased its excretion, leading to dehydration.
very important to maintain the water balance of the body is the condition of the cardiovascular system and the content of proteins in the blood plasma.The degree of water retention in the tissue is significantly affected by the content in the cells and extracellular liquid sodium and potassium salts.Due to these salts in certain cells creates osmotic pressure.The salt composition of the intra- and extracellular fluid is different.If the extracellular fluid is very similar to sea water and the presence of salts in it can vary greatly, the composition of intracellular fluid is almost always constant and retains its chemical identity.This is due to cell membranes which hold potassium refuse sodium and calcium.The cells usually predominate magnesium ions, potassium sulfate groups and outside the cells - chlorine, sodium, calcium and protein fractions.