Feeding critically ill
Feeding seriously ill and requires a special approach is hampered by the loss of appetite and weakness of chewing and swallowing movements, which appear due to the limitation of physical activity.In such cases, the patient needs to be fed more often, in small portions, with a spoon.should take into account the permitted and prohibited products in the food mode.Solid food must be diluted with milk, broth or juice after ingestion give drink from a feeder cup or spoon.
feed the patient should be in a calm atmosphere, without diverting his attention, for example, visual stimuli or talk.
seriously ill fed in bed.To do this, they should give a comfortable sitting or half-sitting position, or raise his head, placing it on the outstretched hand a nurse.
can not rush, otherwise the patient may choke.It is important to make sure that the food was not too hot or cold.The number of feedings is typically increased to 5-6 times a day with a relatively small amount of the food per intake.Food for the seriously ill
probe When the unconscious patient or mental disorders, accompanied by a complete rejection of the meal, as well as traumatic lesions of the oral cavity have resorted to feeding through a tube.In this way, the food and the children with severe prematurity, when they do not have the sucking and swallowing reflexes.
prepare for feeding a thin gastric tube, without olive hopper capacity of 150-200 ml, Janet syringe and 1-2 cups of liquid or semi-liquid food.The probe, funnel and syringe must be sterilized by boiling and dampened to a patient's body temperature.The probe is inserted through the nasal passage.Pre nasal passages inspected, cleaned of crusts and mucus;the rounded end of the probe lubricated with glycerin.
When the probe reaches the posterior wall of the oropharynx, the patient (if conscious) are asked to make a swallowing motion and gently, pushing the index finger through the patient's mouth, lightly pressed against the probe to the back of the throat, pushing it down the esophagus, bypassing the larynx and trachea.
After contact with the probe into the larynx and trachea usually occur stenotic breathing wheezing and coughing.In this case the probe need to pull back somewhat, and to calm down the patient, as noted above, gently push the probe into the stomach through the esophagus - about 35-45 cm, depending on the patient's height.To verify whether the probe was in the trachea, to the outer end of its tray piece of cotton wool or tissue paper.If wool or paper does not move in synchronization with the breathing of the patient, is administered cooked food.The funnel food or poured slowly in small portions, with stops administered via gavage Janet syringe.During feeding is necessary to ensure that the probe is not filled lumen, and regularly "wash" its tea, juice or broth.
After feeding funnel and syringe wash and boil.The probe is left in the stomach for 4-5 days.The outer end of the probe is attached to the cheek and a plaster head of the patient.Care should be taken so that the patient is not pulled probe.
Power through the rectum
When poisoning with heavy metal salts ingestion of the patient is carried out through the rectum.
this purpose most often administered:
• isotonic solutions of: 0.85% sodium chloride solution, 5% glucose solution;
• drugs: aminopeptid for microbiological culture media liquid, alvezin, kozeina hydrolysates, containing a complete set of amino acids.
Before the introduction of the nutrient solution to the patient do a cleansing enema.After that, the intestines should be given time to settle down.Fluid and nutrient solutions are administered warmed to a temperature of 38- 40 ° C instantaneously or droplets of 50-100 ml 3-4 times a day.For frail, elderly, patients with damage to the large intestine and faecal incontinence it is preferred to use the method of drip, because they do not keep the nutrient solutions with single-step introduction.