Measuring body temperature
a healthy person in normal body temperature constant, with minor fluctuations in the morning and evening hours and does not exceed 37 ° C.Such a constant temperature depends on the heat production and heat transfer processes in the body.The balance between heat generation and heat transfer is established and maintained by thermoregulation - a process in which regulated the formation and heat organisms.Heat buildup - basically the chemical process, which serve as a source of oxidation processes, ie,combustion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, partly in all cells and tissues, primarily in skeletal muscle and liver.Heat transfer - mainly physical process, in the quiescent state from the surface of the body radiates about 80% of the resulting heat in it, due to the evaporation of water by breathing and sweating - about 20% in the urine and feces - about 1.5%.Normally
temperature somewhat higher in children than in adults, because children intense oxidative processes necessary for growth.
Women voltage oxidation processes may change during the month due to the cyclical nature of sexual function.This entails sometimes the temperature rise in the menstrual period for a few tenths of a degree.Daily temperature fluctuations are directly dependent on the fluctuations of the oxidative processes, work-related or meal.In healthy people, the morning temperature is a few tenths of a degree lower than in the evening.Temperature Indicators depend on where it is measured.Thus, the temperature of the mucosa of the oral cavity, vagina, rectum at 0,2-0,4 ° C higher than the body temperature of the skin of adults, as measured in the axilla and inguinal folds.The average adult body temperature measured in the axillary region, assumed to be 36,5-37,5 ° C, in children it to 0,5-1 ° C higher (37- 37,5 ° C) and in the elderly - below (35,5-36,5 ° C).Thus, temperature fluctuations in physiological norm does not exceed 1 ° C.
body temperature measurement and observation of it - casual and important duty of the nurse department of any profile.
body temperature is measured medical thermometer.
medical thermometer was first proposed in 1723 Fahrenheit In our country are Celsius thermometer, which consists of a glass capillary tube, at whose end there is a tank filled with mercury.This tube is attached to the scale at which the division applied - from 34 to 42 ° C.The available range of divisions, expressed in degrees, allowing colloquially called thermometer thermometer.The volume of mercury which fills the tank and a small portion of the capillary tube bulb when heated increases.Mercury level rising in the capillary.Independently down following cessation of heating mercury can not.Return the mercury in the reservoir can be just shaking it a few times.This should be done carefully so as not to drop the thermometer or not to hit him on nearby objects.To store the thermometers commonly use glass on the bottom of which is placed a layer of cotton wool.At 1/3 or 1/2 volume of a glass filled with 70% alcohol, you can use any disinfectant solution (eg 0.5% solution of chlorine bleach), strictly maintaining the exposure time according to the order number 408 and remains 42-21-2-15.To while shaking the thermometer jumped out of hand, at its upper end to put the rubber cap.
Before temperature measurement thermometer should be carefully wiped and shook off the mercury to below 35 ° C, apply the patient or put the thermometer itself.
axilla must first be wiped dry with a towel, as moisture cools the mercury, and the thermometer shows a lower temperature.Between the thermometer and the body should not be exposed underwear, and next to be warmer or ice packs.The field used for measuring the body temperature should not be inflammation (redness, swelling), as may occur a local increase in temperature.Weak sick nurse holds his hand.Length measurement - at least 10 minutes.
have very depleted and critically ill patients the body temperature can be measured in the rectum.Contraindications to the measurement of the temperature in this way are delayed stool, diarrhea, rectal disease.Before introduction into the rectum thermometer should be lubricated with petroleum jelly or any fat, and then paste it on the half-length at the position of the patient on his side.The buttocks should fit tightly to each other.
After each measurement of temperature in the rectum thermometer wash thoroughly with warm water and disinfected in alcohol or in one of the available disinfecting solution.
Kids temperature is measured in the groin crease.To do this, the child's leg is bent more in the hip joint, so that the thermometer was formed in the skin crease.
Usually the body temperature measured 2 times a day, morning and evening - in 7-8 hours and 16-17 hours.Indications are made in the temperature of the thermometer sheet, where the dot denotes the morning and evening temperatures.By marks for several days up temperature curve having many diseases characteristic appearance.If you want to make hourly temperature measurements and draw points on the graph of the daily temperature fluctuations.
normal temperature when measured in the armpit is considered to 36,4-36,8 ° C.During the day, the body temperature can vary: less likely it is between 17 and 21 pm.The difference between morning and evening temperatures in healthy subjects less than 0,6 ° C.After eating, strenuous exercise in a hot room body temperature increases slightly.