Enteral ( intravenous) administration of drugs
most common, while relatively simple and convenient method of administering drugs - welcome them inside.The advantages of this way - a comparative safety and no complications typical for parenteral administration.Drugs administered enterally, may have both a local (and some antimicrobial anthelmintics) and systemic action.
1. Introduction by mouth - oral .In the treatment of diseases of internal organs orally should be prescribed drugs, which are well absorbed by the mucous membrane of the stomach or intestines.When treating a high concentration of the digestive organs to create a drug to the gastrointestinal tract.In this case, on the contrary, use drugs that are poorly absorbed, to provide a good local effect without systemic adverse reactions.In some severe diseases desirable that the drug has a high concentration of a topically (eg in the intestinal lumen) and into the blood.Inside
drugs administered in the form of solutions, powders, tablets, capsules, pills.To prevent irritant effect of certain
2. Introduction under the tongue - sublingually. oral mucosa has a rich blood supply, contributes to the rapid absorption of substances from entering the systemic circulation.With sublingual application of the drug is not exposed to the gastrointestinal juice and into the systemic circulation by esophageal veins, bypassing the liver, thus avoiding its biotransformation.The drug should be kept under the tongue until complete resorption.Ingestion saliva reduces its advantages medicament.With frequent use of sublingual drugs can cause irritation of the mucous membranes of the mouth.
3. Introduction into the rectum - rectally .The rectum has a dense network of blood and lymph vessels.Many drugs are well absorbed from the surface of the mucous membrane.The substances absorbed in the lower part of the rectum through the lower hemorrhoidal veins enter the systemic circulation, bypassing the liver.Rectal administration of drugs to avoid stomach irritation.
Disadvantages oral use of medicines and, if necessary, obtain a systemic effect following:
• relatively slow development of therapeutic action;
• large individual differences in the speed and completeness of the suction;
• impact of food, gastrointestinal conditions, the absorption of drugs;
• inability to use drugs, is poorly absorbed mucous membranes or breaks in the lumen of the stomach and bowel, when passing through the liver, or providing a strong irritant effect;
• impossibility of administering drugs through the mouth while vomiting and unconscious patient.
In this way, you can use drugs in cases when it is difficult or impractical introduction peros (marked nausea, vomiting, spasms, or obstruction of the esophagus).The disadvantages of this pathway include pronounced individual variations in the speed and completeness of absorption of drugs, psychological difficulties and use of the inconvenience.Suppositories are administered rectally (suppositories) and liquid enemas.This is used as a route of administration to obtain the local (e.g., ulcerative colitis) and systemic effects.