Local medical procedures distractions
Local distracting procedures include a hot compress, heating pad, mustard wraps, mustard plasters, poultices and banks.
1. Warming wrap - one of the most common local thermal treatments, which are widely used both in the hospital setting, a hook and at home.It provides a soft thermal effect in inflammatory processes on the surface (lymphadenitis, inflammation of the middle ear, abscesses, cellulitis, contusions, etc.).
local hot compress is used as a means of distracting and relaxing.As a result, local reflex action produced by heat bandage comes a rush of blood, increased metabolism, reduced surface sensitivity.The main layers of hot compress should be:
• humid, or internal, consisting of 6-8 layers of gauze bandage or a napkin;
• isolation, or average, which is a plastic film, a thin rubber sheet or wax paper;
• Insulate, or external, of cotton (preferably hygroscopic) 2-3 cm.
thickness In the absence of wool used for this purpose a piece of flannel, wool scarf, or other heat-retaining materi
to obtain the desired thermal effect, it is important to observe the correct size ratio between the layers.The wet layer must match the size of the inflamed area of the body, the average - 2-4 cm overlap humid outside - cover all the underlying layers.Layers compress better first put on the table.
inner layer is moistened with water in a mixture with the alcohol (1: 1) or oil (. Or camphor, etc.) and squeeze.Cooked this way compress is applied wet layer to the patient's body part the skin and tightly pribintovyvayut to not pass air.
compress is usually held 4-8 hours, then make a break for 1-2 hours and re-impose - and so for 2-4 days.
When changing compress the inner layer should be changed, because in wet warm environment can actively proliferate microorganisms.The skin after removing the poultice rubbed with cotton wool soaked in clean boiled water with alcohol.
If you want to apply a compress on the ear wipes placed on the mastoid process is somewhat lower.They should cover the plastic film or waxed paper and cotton cover your whole ear, including the ear, and tape up tightly.
should be appointed compresses the chest, because the dense pribintovyvanie compress leads to restriction of respiratory excursion of the chest.
If after applying compress the patient feels chill, then compress applied correctly - the film or wool does not fully cover the gauze bandage or compress poorly.In these cases, the outside air and water to penetrate between the compress and the skin and intensively evaporates, causing no warming and cooling of the skin.Therefore, you need to apply a compress very carefully, respecting the rules mentioned above.
To increase the effect of warming compresses, its inner layer should not moisten with water and solutions of drugs and oil: 5% ethyl alcohol solution, a 3% solution of soda, camphor oil.
local hot compress causing local congestion and reflexively gives analgesic effect.Folded in several layers of cloth soaked in hot water (50-60 ° C), and the squeeze is applied to the body, then coated on top cloth and a thick (preferably woolen) fabric.You can attach a compress bandage, but only slightly, as the hook every 5-10 minutes compress should be changed.Local poultices act like hot compresses, but cool down slowly for 1-2 hours.To avoid burns, you must first check the temperature of a poultice.Park the top covered with oilcloth, top to put cotton wool or a wool scarf and cover with a bandage;as a poultice to cool down, the bag is reheated in boiling water and then applied.
Indications and contraindications - are the same as for a rubdown.The total duration of 15-20 minutes wrapping prescribed as antipyretic and exciting process, and the more active the nervous, cardiovascular system and metabolism.Longer treatment (within 20-45 minutes), in contrast, reduces the excitability of the nervous system, and the total length of damp wrapping 50-60 minutes gives diaphoretic effect.
In: Upholstered headboard couch with blankets and laid on top of them lay soaked and wrung out the sheets.Between the blanket and sheets can be put oilcloth of the same size as a sheet.Naked patient lies down on the sheet, it quickly wrapped her in a blanket and wrapped, leaving open only the head, which put a cold compress.Within the first 15-20 minutes (first phase) until the air between the sheet and the patient's body, and it is heated to body temperature, the phenomenon of excitation of the nervous and cardiovascular systems and increased heat production.In the future (the second phase) warming causes a decrease in excitability of the nervous system and the onset of sleep - pulse becomes less frequent, blood pressure drops, breathing deepens.This procedure is technically difficult, and therefore used less frequently than the local hot compress.
If necessary, the total thermal effects often use other methods of thermotherapy: mud and peat treatment, paraffin and ozokeritotherapy etc.
2. warmers. used as a local heat treatment with superficial infiltration of inflammatory foci in the phase of resorption of hematomas, with myositis, to relieve spasms of smooth muscles of the gallbladder and bile ducts, intestines and other organs.
The rubber hot water bottle filled with hot water (temperature 60-70 ° C) is only half.The air above the water as possible is removed, after which the water bottle tightly stoppered.To avoid burns, before applying to the patient area of the body heating pad wrapped in a towel.You can use electric heaters.Contraindications: acute inflammatory processes in the abdominal cavity (appendicitis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis), cancer, bleeding in the first few hours after tissue injury.
3. Mustard wraps - commonly used heat treatment, has a soothing and diaphoretic action.Mustard wraps shown in acute respiratory diseases, pneumonia, etc. It is possible to make general or local mustard wrap -. Only in the chest (for children of preschool and school age).
100-200 grams of dry mustard powder room willow by 2-3 liters of boiling water and mix thoroughly with a stick or spoon.The prepared mixture should stand for 3-4 minutes.Then, the liquid portion of the mixture is poured into another bowl, moisten it a sheet or a diaper, squeeze it and spread out on a flannel or flannel diaper, lying on a blanket or towel.After 5-10 minutes applique skin is removed and washed with warm water.
Mustard poultice was prepared in the same way as mustard wrap, but dipped in mustard solution, not a towel, and a smaller piece of cloth, folded in several layers, apply it to the affected area, cover the top oil cloth or waxed paper, then with a towel and sheltering the patient with a blanket.The resulting burning of the patient must endure 8-12 minutes, then remove the poultice, wash reddened skin with warm water, smeared with Vaseline and heat are covered with the patient.
Mustard is used for the same purpose as the mustard wraps.Their use contributes to the effects on the blood circulation due to the action of air mustard oil, which irritates the skin and dilates the blood vessels.
Mustard is used as follows: a mustard plaster is wetted and applied to the skin mustard down for 10-15 minutes.If the patient there is increased skin reaction, and he quickly feels a burning sensation, before laying on a mustard plaster to the skin it is necessary to put a piece of tissue paper.On top of the mustard superimposed cloth or towel, and the patient is covered by a blanket.When properly staged mustard plasters felt her skin burning and redness.It must be remembered that in the long-term presence of a mustard plaster on the skin, especially with its increased sensitivity, burns can occur.At the end of the procedure are removed mustard, mustard residues are washed off with warm water, the skin can be lightly greased with Vaseline.
Contraindications .Mustard can not be put in skin diseases, as well as bleeding.It is not recommended to put mustard on the same place, as this may cause the development of skin pigmentation.