Components of the diet
Before we talk about the child's daily food, you need to remember any of the most important elements is the food and why these elements are used by the body.
In a sense, the child's body can be compared to a building under construction.In order to build a house and to keep it in order, we need a variety of building materials.But the human body - is also operating the machine.It requires fuel for energy and other materials, to work fine, just like a car needs gasoline, oil, grease and water.
Proteins Proteins - the main building material of the body.For example, muscle, heart, brain, kidney, composed mainly of protein (except water).Bones are made up of protein, rich in minerals, such as starched shirt collar for rigidity.Child needs good food proteins to constantly increase the size of all the organs of the body and to compensate energy costs.
Almost all natural foods contain proteins - some more than others.Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk is the most rich in proteins.These are the only foods that c
Various minerals play an important role in the structure and activity of every organ of the body.The strength of bones and teeth is dependent on calcium and phosphorus.The substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body, is composed partly of iron and copper.Iodine is necessary for normal functioning of the thyroid gland.
All natural unprocessed foods (fruits, vegetables, meat, unrefined grains, eggs, milk) contain a variety of minerals.But the grain handling and long cooking vegetables in a large amount of water, most of these salts destroys.Most often a diet lacking in calcium, iron, and, in some areas, iodine.Calcium is contained in small quantities in fruits and vegetables, but is abundant in milk (and cheese).Iron supply leafy green vegetables, meat, fruits, whole grains, but most of it into the egg yolk and liver.Yoda is not enough in some inland areas, where it is not enough drinking water, fruits and vegetables, and seafood are difficult.In these areas sell iodized table salt, which prevents goitre.
Vitamins Vitamins - a special substance that the body needs in small quantities, the machine needs a few drops of oil or gasoline engine depends on tiny electrical spark.
Vitamin A is essential for normal condition of the inner surface of the bronchi, for the functioning of the urinary system and for different parts of the eye, including the ones that allow us to see in the darkness.The body gets vitamin A from milk fat, egg yolk, green and yellow vegetables and special vitamin concentrates.Probably not enough vitamin A receive only those who really unhealthy diet, or those who are not able to absorb it because of a serious intestinal disease.Due to lack of vitamin A such people constantly suffer from colds.But there is no reason
assume that the person to eat normally, will be less likely to catch a cold if will take more vitamin A.
Complex vitamin B. Previously, scientists believed that there is one vitamin that performs different functions in the body.However, when examined more closely it turned out that this is as much as ten different vitamins.But most of them are found in one and the same kinds of products tex.Since the composition and action of vitamin B have not yet fully understood, there are preferred natural food in which it is contained, than to take special concentrates.The three elements that make up the vitamin, is now considered the most important for the body and are called thiamine, riboflavin and niacin.They need all the body's tissues.
Thiamine (B1) in large quantities found in whole grains, milk, eggs, liver, meat and some vegetables and fruits.Prolonged cooking destroys it, especially when the ash is used.When a person eats a lot of refined starch and sugar, it is not getting enough thiamine.Lack of thiamine causes poor appetite, slow growth, fatigue, trouble with the digestive and nervous disorders.(However, all these symptoms there are many other reasons, and a lack of thiamine is not the most common of them.)
Riboflavin (also known as B2 or vitamin G) found in abundance in liver, meat, milk, eggs, greenvegetables, whole grains, yeast, so a sensible diet provides the body with the necessary amount thereof.Deficiency causes cracks in the corners of the mouth and lips and other troubles associated with the lips, skin, mouth and eyes.
Niacin (nicotinic acid) is found in abundance in the same products, that Mr. riboflavin (except milk).Deficiency causes diseases of the mouth, skin and intestine, which are part of the disease, known as pellagra.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in very large amounts in oranges, lemons, grapefruit, fresh and properly cooked canned tomatoes and raw cabbage.In significant numbers - in some other fruits and vegetables, including potatoes.It is available in many vitamin concentrates.Required for the development of bone, tooth, blood vessels and other tissues, and plays a role in the life of the body cells.Lack of this vitamin is found in children fed exclusively cow's milk, without the orange or tomato juice and concentrates without vitamin C, and is manifested in painful hemorrhages in the periosteum and swollen bleeding gums.This disease called scurvy.Vitamin
D is needed in large quantities for growth, especially the growth of bones and teeth.It helps to extract from food trapped in the intestine, calcium and phosphorus, transmits them to the blood, and by the blood of these elements disperse throughout the body.That's why it should be added to food, especially in childhood, in a period of rapid growth.The normal diet contained in small amounts.The sun's rays cause the formation of vitamin D in the skin directly, if a lot of time in the fresh air and walk around without clothes.People who live in cold climates, the body covered with clothes and spend much time in the room.The sun's rays in such areas fall more obliquely and also absorbed by soot and dust in the air and the glass panes.The best sources of Vitamin D - fish oil and specially synthesized drugs.(Fish stores vitamin D in your liver when eating plankton -.. Tiny plants floating on the surface of the ocean And in these plants vitamin D appeared under the influence of the sun) The result of a lack of vitamin D are soft curved bones, bad teeth, weak muscles and tendons.This disease is called rickets.Adults
probably get enough vitamin D from eggs and fish oil and a small amount of sunlight.But the child who lacks the sun, summer and winter must necessarily receive a specially prepared vitamin D, is no longer growing.Mothers need vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation.
Water and fiber
Water does not calories or vitamins, but is very important for the growth and activity of the organism (the child's body by 60 percent water).The child should be able to drink once or twice between feedings, and even more often in hot weather.Most of the products are mainly composed of water, and that is how people satisfy most of their needs in it.
Fiber - is a fabric of vegetables, fruits and grains (such as bran), which our innards can not digest and assimilate.Dietary fiber comes from the gut undigested, but in one respect it is very useful.It is that part of the intestinal contents, which stimulates its functioning.If a person eats food, where there is almost no fiber (eg, eggs, broth and milk), he will begin constipation.
fat, starch and sugar
Fuel.So far we have considered the body's building materials and other substances necessary for normal functioning.But so far we have not spoken about the fuel.The body, which is a type of motor needs a lot of fuel, the car needs gasoline.When a person sleeps, he keeps beating heart, reduced the insides, working liver, kidneys and other ORGAN.It looks like a car parked in neutral gear, but with the engine running.When a person wakes up, starts to walk, run, jog, it burns more fuel, as a moving car.Most of the food a child - it's fuel, even when it is growing rapidly.
Fuel supply starch, sugars, fats (and to a lesser extent proteins).Starch consists of a chemical combination of sugars.In the intestine, it breaks down into sugar and then absorbed by the body.Since starch and sugar are closely linked, they are collectively called carbohydrates.
Subcutaneous fat.When a person eats more fats, starches, sugars and proteins than necessary as a fuel, the excess is converted into fat and stored underneath the skin.When a person consumes too little "fuel", is part of the subcutaneous reserves of fuel and the person loses weight.This fatty tissue, which in varying degrees, is at all, is not only fuel warehouse, but also, like a blanket, protects the body from the cold.
Calories. food value as a fuel is measured in calories.Water and mineral salts do not have calories, that is, are not flammable and energy supplier.Fats very rich in calories: 30 g of fat calories is twice that in the same amount of starch, sugar or protein.Therefore, animal and vegetable oils and margarine, which is almost entirely composed of fat, cream, mayonnaise and other salad dressings are very high in calories.
in sugar and syrups, too many calories, because it does not contain carbohydrates and no water or vegetable fiber.
Cereal (we eat in the form of cereals, breads, crackers, pasta, puddings, etc.) and starchy vegetables (such as potatoes, peas, corn) also contain a lot of calories because of the large amount of starch in them.
in meat, poultry, fish, eggs, cheese, a lot of calories because they are made up of carbohydrates and fats.But the main portion of the daily calories we get from them is not (because we eat them in small amounts), and from the cereal and starchy vegetables.Milk - a rich source of calories, because it contains sugar, fat and protein, and because it is easy to make in large quantities.
fresh and cooked vegetables also provide calories, because there is sugar in them.Especially rich in calories bananas and dried fruit (compared, for example, potatoes).
is little, and quite a few (depending on the sugar content and starch) in the calorie vegetables.Lots of calories in regular and sweet potatoes, corn and legumes such as soybeans, kidney bean and lima beans.Quite a lot of peas, beets, carrots, onions, parsnips, squash and pumpkin.Few calories in fiber beans, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, eggplant, spinach, tomatoes, lettuce, Swiss chard, broccoli and asparagus.