First emergency care for acute allergic reactions and anaphylactic shock
greatest value of acute allergic reactions have an allergic rash (occurs most often), angioedema and anaphylactic shock.
factors that cause an allergic reaction, may be foods, drugs, cosmetics, animal dander, pollen, and more.An allergy can cause virtually any substance.Care should be taken to collect medical history, although in many cases the allergen can not be set.
allergic rash appears as a bright pink spotty rash on the skin of different sizes, irregularly shaped, sometimes drain.It can be located on any parts of the body.As a rule, it is accompanied by severe itching, skin traces of scratching.There is a few minutes or hours after exposure to the allergen.
Angioedema - areas of dense pale swelling, usually in the confluence of the elements of hives.It may also develop airway edema, gastrointestinal tract and other internal organs (visceral edema).This causes the corresponding clinical manifestations -. Shortness of breath, chest pain and abdominal pain, dizziness, headache and other
Anaphylaxis is caused by a sharp increase in the capacity of the vascular bed and the loss of a large number of plasma, resulting in a reduction in the mass of circulating blood, blood pressure falland unfolded a picture of shock.
danger to the life condition of the patient is the development of acute asphyxia due to spasm and swelling of the bronchial mucosa.
Emergency aid for hives:
1) pipolfen, tavegil, suprastin or diphenhydramine in the amount of 1 to 2 ml with 10 ml of saline intravenously;
2) with extensive lesions of the skin, as well as angioedema further added: 30-60 mg prednisolone intravenously.
Anaphylactic shock - immediate reaction to contact with an allergen.
In the absence of necessary medicines used additional methods - gastric lavage, enema, giving the patient 5-10 tablets of activated charcoal, a tablespoon of 5-10% solution of calcium chloride solution (it is also possible to intravenous administration), 2-3 dimedrola tablets suprastina, copiously lubricated skin (especially in places of contact with the allergen, and in edema) ointment containing hydrocortisone or prednisolone (sometimes in first aid kits in the form of eye ointment).
1) cease access allergen (if any);
2) put the patient in order to eliminate the tongue and aspiration of vomit;
3) apply a tourniquet above the sting place, or enter a drug;
4) administer intravenously or intramuscular epinephrine, norepinephrine or phenylephrine;
5) intravenous bolus or infusion introduce prednisolone 60-100 mg with 5% glucose solution;
6) to maintain intravenous or intramuscular antihistamines, blood pressure after lifting;
7) symptomatic treatment (aminophylline, Korglikon, Lasix).
Patients with urticaria in the case of the assistance provided efficiency (the disappearance of itching, rash, paleness and reduction) can be left at home.It is recommended to continue taking antihistamines to 3 times a day and pass "active call" GP.Patients with angioedema and breathing disorders are subject to mandatory hospitalization in therapeutic department.Patients with anaphylactic shock brought to the intensive care unit, or transmit reanimatsinnoy brigade.