Bleeding and ways to stop
bleeding occurs as a result of violation of the integrity of the vessel, which may occur as a result of injury, the collapse of the wall of the vessel in tumors and purulent processes.It is known that in humans the average blood volume is equal to 5 l.It is assumed that the loss of about 10% of this amount does not bear the consequences of that are dangerous to health;A 20% can become a threat to human life;if there was a loss of blood in the amount of more than 20%, the life of the victim can be saved only by emergency replenishment of blood loss.
• exterior, with the blood through the skin wound or mucous membrane comes to the environment;
• internal, which are divided:
a) clear when the blood flows into the hollow organs (eg, intestine, stomach, bladder, bronchi) and only accumulate in them, stands out through natural orifices;
b) hidden when the blood flows into a closed body cavity such as the abdomen, chest or skull cavity and never poured out because of the lack of natural ori
bleeding into the abdominal cavity leads to the development of acute anemia, and the patient quickly fades;his pulse quickens, but weak filling;he complains of excruciating thirst, darkening of the eyes, drowsiness may faint.
bleeding into the chest cavity and lead to anemia, while in patients with shortness of breath occurs, breathing becomes rapid and labored.
bleeding in the cranial cavity leads primarily to compression of the brain, while the victim complains of unbearable headache, may lose consciousness, respiratory disorders are observed, there may be paralysis and other neurological symptoms.
hemarthrosis, or bleeding into the joint, occurs due to damage to the articular surfaces and ligaments may occur when the hemorrhagic diseases, such as scurvy or hemophilia.When this is mixed with the blood and synovial fluid in the articular cavity coagulates.The patient in this case is experiencing severe pain, not only when driving but alone, so try to limit the movement in the joint, it takes a forced situation bending it.The external sign of the disease is a swelling in the joint, which follows the contours of the articular volvulus.Determined effusion in the composition.Absorption hemarthrosis long after it is still possible limitation of mobility;
c) interstitial, in fact, are hemorrhage, in which blood pushes the soft tissue, forming a cluster - a hematoma, or impregnates them.In the area of the injury appears most precarious swelling at closer to the localization of the surface, manifesting visible hemorrhage in the subcutaneous tissue (aka - a bruise).The reverse process is slow.It may be complicated by suppuration with fever, increased pain, redness and the appearance of the formation of an abscess.
Hygroma - bleeding in the lining of the bag, which developed as a result of injury, or - re-mechanical injury as a result of pressure on the mucous membrane of the bag.Most often, such injuries occur in the anterior surface of the patella, the elbow, under the deltoid muscle in the area of the greater trochanter femur in the knee area or under the Achilles tendon.As a result of an injury in the bag there is a serous effusion, it thickens, it grow villi appear loose fibrinous calf lime deposition takes place.
On examination revealed elastic, rounded tumor in a typical place.This swelling is painless, but can give a lot of pain when moving.The base of the tumor closely associated with the deeply lying tissue, the skin retains mobility.Improving the condition possible without treatment, but there may be cases of exacerbation.
origin of bleeding can be different.
1. Traumatic - the most common type of bleeding.Such bleeding occurs as a result of mechanical damage to the vessels happens:
• primary, when bleeding occurs immediately after the injury;
• secondary when bleeding resumes several days after the injury.Such bleeding occur with festering wounds, and the purulent process leads to the melting of the blood clots that covered the damaged vessel lumen.Bleeding may at reduced blood clotting, which depends on the duration and intensity.
vascular injury is due to trauma or injury, the nature of which depends on how the subject of the injury was inflicted.Among the wounded was isolated:
• incised wound, which has smooth edges without damaging the surrounding tissue.Its characteristic feature is that it is considered to be the bleeding and gaping;
• puncture wound dangerous possibility of damage to internal organs, including the heart and major blood vessels, abdominal organs, etc. Such wounds are always accompanied by heavy bleeding and are more prone to such complications as infection.;
• chopped wound is a soft tissue injury of varying depth.In this crushing injury may damage tissues and bones;
• contused has jagged, blood-soaked region, representing a favorable environment for the development of infection in it;
• laceration different from other detachment of the skin flaps, damage to blood vessels, tendons and muscles.
Injuries accompanied by violation of the thoracic, abdominal, cranial or joint cavities called penetrating.In this type of injury possible loss of internal organs.
2. nontraumatic .This type of bleeding occurs during pathological processes that destroy vessels, increased vascular permeability in some diseases, such as hemophilia.In this disease, even with a slight injury or injury having persistent bleeding and bleeding on the skin, joints, muscles of the mucous membranes.
aneurysm, or enlargement of an artery can also cause arterial bleeding.In this disease there is a change in the vessel wall in which it is stretched and forms a protrusion, which is called a true aneurysm.When wound artery blood flows into the surrounding tissue and partially curtailed;of these bundles and surrounding tissue forms a wall of the bag, which is connected to a vessel containing a liquid and blood - there is traumatic, or false aneurysm.In addition to arterial aneurysm arteriovenous distinguish when there is a connection between a vein and an artery.The symptoms of this disease is swelling round or oval shape, corresponding to the position of the artery, throbbing and giving noise when listening.When compression of the more central artery aneurysm pulsation disappears, and the swelling is reduced.In the process of growth aneurysm compresses the veins than blood flow causes difficulty is determined by cyanosis and edema below the aneurysm.Thus may suffer from compression of nerves, resulting in developing trophic changes in tissues and sensitivity disorder.If there is a thinning of the adjacent tissue, likely aneurysm rupture with massive hemorrhage, entailing the death of the patient.
Depending on the bleeding vessel is isolated:
• arterial bleeding, and the blood is bright red, poured out a strong pulsating jet.Arterial bleeding is considered to be particularly rapid, significant and life-threatening.Risk it, and another heavy bleeding, is that there is a sufficiently rapid reduction in circulating blood comes a sharp anemia, which leads to a violation of hemodynamics, cardiac function deteriorates, therefore, vital organs disrupted the process of supply of oxygen, which are the brain, the liverkidneys, which in turn leads to an abrupt disruption of metabolic processes in the body, and the victim loses consciousness.Heavy blood loss without appropriate assistance to the victim leads to its death.By the way, lead to fatal blood loss within a few minutes can be bleeding from major blood vessels, especially arteries.Especially dangerous bleeding in children and the elderly;
• venous bleeding are caused by venous damage, thus pours the blood has a dark cherry color and follows a steady stream only in case of damage of large veins pulsing blood stream can be observed, with the ripple corresponds to the act of breathing, not heart rate, as inarterial bleeding.In case of bleeding from the veins of the neck or chest from resulting negative pressure during inhalation air is sucked into the veins, and can develop air embolism - blockage of blood vessels by air;
• Mixed bleeding, or mixed, usually parenchymal, which manifests a set of characteristics of arterial and venous bleeding and damage observed in the liver, kidney, spleen;
• capillary bleeding in which the blood is released evenly throughout the surface of the wound dropwise.
severity of bleeding depends on two factors: the speed and duration of the outpouring of blood.The duration of bleeding depends on the clotting factor that is particularly important in certain diseases, in which reduced blood clotting, so because of their duration even scant bleeding sometimes becomes a threat to the life of the patient.Such diseases include hemophilia and radiation sickness.
Thus, the purpose of assisting the most affected, and (if possible) becomes stop bleeding.
If scant bleeding or capillary, in most cases, a healthy organism itself can cope with bleeding due to its protective forces, under the influence of which the formation of a blood clot, narrows the lumen of the damaged vessel or small capillary vessels.Thus, the bleeding stopped on their own.But this does not always happen, so no immediate relief can occur bleeding of the brain and other vital organs, followed by the death of the victim.In most cases, a large blood loss and trauma the victim falls into a state of shock.At the same time, though his mind and saved, it becomes completely indifferent to the environment, in some cases, in the initial stage of shock, he becomes emotionally and mentally excited, it is difficult to stop;His voice becomes quiet;appears pale skin, they are covered with sticky cold sweat;Heart rate falls, the pulse becomes weak;shallow breathing, rapid;expression of the affected person becomes fixed, and appears on its face, he becomes like a victim.In this case, it can only help urgent blood transfusion, which may start in the machine "Ambulance" or in a hospital.Transporting affected in this case it is performed in the prone position.As long as the patient remains on the scene, it must be placed on a flat horizontal surface, and with significant blood loss is recommended to put it so that the head is below the level of the body, which help to avoid or stop the development of blood starvation of the brain, leading to death.
As we now know, the bleeding may occur not only as a result of wounding.Thus, passage of blood through the mouth occurs most often due to bleeding from the upper respiratory tract, esophagus or stomach.Pulmonary hemorrhage, generally have tuberculosis origin, but may occur when bronchiectasis, abscesses, gangrene of the lung, pulmonary actinomycosis and several other lung pathologies that give a complication of heart attack, and even in various diseases of the hematopoietic system.In pulmonary hemorrhage is released frothy red blood.When severe bleeding occurs anemia occurs decline of cardiovascular activity, manifested by sudden pallor of the skin and mucous, general weakness, dizziness, fainting, noholadeniem limbs, cold sweat, small and frequent pulse until extinction.
One of the most common bleeding is epistaxis, which is caused by: trauma, removal of strongly adhering crusts, picking your nose, bleeding tumors and ulcers in the nose, as well as infectious diseases, diseases of blood-forming organs and heart disease, liver and kidney disease, hypertensiondisease, arteriosclerosis.Occasionally bleeding from the nose caused by atmospheric pressure changes, temperature and humidity, as well as the prolonged irritation of mucous nasal cavities chemicals.Some people from the nose bleeding may occur in hot weather, because of the drying of the nasal mucosa;some - as a result of blood to the head after prolonged exposure to the sun.As a rule, the bleeding site is located on the lower front part of the nasal septum - 1 cm above the entrance to the nose.
Parenchymal hemorrhage occur in mixed injury of small arteries, veins and capillaries Internal parenchymal organs, which are liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs.Such bleeding may be copious and long, and the end of the victim's death.
In gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, ulcerative process when a blood vessel breaks, appear bloody vomiting.Sometimes it is the very first sign of a peptic ulcer, which until then asymptomatic.Gastrointestinal bleeding may be accompanied by acute gastritis and stomach cancer.Quite often, gastric bleeding occurs due to expansion and rupture of the veins of the esophagus and stomach, which is a cause of liver cirrhosis.
Bloody vomiting, in appearance resembling coffee grounds, is a diagnostic sign of bleeding from the stomach and duodenum (the blood gets this kind as a result of her gastric hydrochloric acid).Vomiting blood or fresh decomposed dark red blood with a small admixture of blood "coffee grounds" is observed in the turbulent gastric bleeding.Long-term and major bleeding causes anemia, general weakness, weight loss.Significant bleeding often leads to collapse.
When peptic ulcer within 1-2 days after the bloody vomiting due to impurities digested blood appears tarry stool with a foul-smelling odor.
Minor stomach bleeding may go unnoticed, as the blood from the stomach enters the intestine and is digested there.
Blood in the stool is an indication of bleeding in general, in any part of the gastrointestinal tract.As it can only identify the color of which was bleeding intestine, for example, tarry feces indicate that bleeding occurs in the upper sections.As a result of bleeding develops general anemia, accompanied by dizziness, weakness, thirst, pomrachneniem consciousness, pulse rate, and weaker, the blood pressure drops sharply pale skin, the patient noted bloating and pain in the gut.Tarry stools usually appear 1-2 days after bleeding.Unmodified blood, not mixed with the stool indicates bleeding from the lowest part of the colon.
Blood can be allocated in the urine or in admixture with it.It can be determined or visible only under a microscope in the study of the urinary sediment.Hematuria can be observed in nephritis, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, leukemia, hemophilia, tuberculosis and kidney tumors, as well as damage to the kidneys and urinary tract, kidney stones and bladder.Evolved long blood clots indicate that at night, and the ureter is an inflammatory process.