Since arterial bleeding often becomes a threat not only to health but also human life, it is very much depends on how promptly and competently assisted the victim or patient with profuse bleeding.
Blood bleeding from small arteries and arteries located on the body can be stopped using all the same pressure bandage (it is the only way provisional stop bleeding on the body), wherein the wound should apply several layers of gauze or muslin tissue, thentightly twisted cotton or bandage and then tightly pribintovyvayut of several rounds of bandage or use other means at hand, performing hemostasis on the principle described above.If you have a large wound surface with gaping vessels, should be imposed on the vessels in the wound hemostats.
One of the best and affordable in every environment a way to temporarily stop the bleeding blood vessel clamping is considered over - wound up, closer to the heart through the bloodstream.But for this you should know where the damaged artery is as close to the surface in
Typical pressing places arteries for the purpose of temporarily stopping bleeding are the following arteries: carotid, subclavian, brachial, axillary, radial, abdominal aorta, common femoral, superficial femoral, rear foot.
consider several ways of clamping the arteries throughout.
to quickly find the most suitable for pressing the point of bleeding stops should be aware that the most important points for pressing are:
• for the femoral artery - the inguinal fold;
• for leg arteries - popliteal region;
• artery to the hand - axillary region and the inner surface of the biceps;
• for carotid artery - the neck of the inner edge of the sterno-clavicular muscle in its middle;
• for subclavian artery - supraclavicular region.
1. Severe bleeding wound of the upper and middle part of the neck and submandibular area and the person should stop, clutching the common carotid artery.For this purpose, one of the wounds large or grouped in one line II, III and IV fingers of the same hand, arranged along the carotid artery and press them towards the spine, wherein the carotid artery is pressed against the transverse process of the sixth cervical vertebra.
temporal artery, located in front of the ear should be pressed with the thumb to the temporal bone.
mandibular artery thumb should be pressed against the corner of the lower jaw.
2. Heavy bleeding wound in the shoulder joint, the subclavian and axillary region, and the upper third of the shoulder should be stopped, pressing the subclavian artery.For this purpose, one of the wounds large or grouped in one line of the second, third and fourth fingers of the same hand, positioned in the supraclavicular fossa and apply pressure on the artery.To increase the pressure, you can press on the toes on top of the fingers of the other hand.Pressure should be made above the clavicle guiding force from top to bottom, with the subclavian artery is pressed against the first rib.
3. Severe bleeding wounds of the middle and lower third of the arm, forearm or hand should be stopped, pressing the brachial artery.Stop bleeding by pressure and carry-IV fingers to the inner surface of the shoulder at the inner edge of the biceps, and the brachial artery will be pressed against the humerus.
stop bleeding from injured hand brush can artery, pressing the radial artery to the radial bone in the wrist near the thumb area.
4. Severe bleeding wounds of the lower extremities should be stopped, pressing the femoral artery.To this end, the thumb or fist should be done pressing the artery in the groin to the point located at an equal interval between the pubis and the projection of the ilium.When providing assistance to one artery presses his thumb, it is possible to increase the pressure by helping the thumb of the other hand.
.Press artery fist should be done so that the fold line in the interphalangeal joint was located across the inguinal folds, again, to increase the pressing can help push the other hand.
strong arterial bleeding from an artery of the foot or lower leg should be stopped, pressing the popliteal artery in the popliteal fossa.In order to stop the bleeding from the leg arteries, need thumb should be imposed on the anterior surface of the knee joint, and the other hand to press down with your fingers to the bone artery.To stop bleeding from an artery of the foot it is necessary to push the rear foot to the bones, and then make the imposition of a pressure bandage on the foot or lower leg tourniquet on the area with a strong bleeding.
As mentioned above, pressing the artery is used for a short time, so to pause strong arterial bleeding can be used a method of pulling a circular rubber tourniquet above the site of bleeding.He is one of the main and most effective ways to stop major bleeding observed in the damage of major arterial vessels of the extremities, as in this case are pressed all the vessels above the place injured.
harness is a thick rubber or cloth tape or tube length of 1 to 1.5 m to one end of the harness attached to the hook, and another -. Metal chain.
harness may be applied as follows.First place on the overlay harness should impose a towel or cheesecloth, you can wrap the bandage this place a few times in order not to infringe on the skin harness and deliver the most victim additional pain.Then of course you need to lift and take iodine her harness.Then it should be stretched in such a way to make a limb and without weakening the tension wrap around it a few times following tours should be weaker, and the need to try to harness the windings lay close to each other, without prejudice to the skin.Check tourniquet should be fixing all harness fastened together by hook and chain.
Without rubber band can be replaced by a rubber tube, belt or tie a bandage, in the end with a handkerchief, dragging them limb, like a tourniquet.To do this you need to put a pre-estimated on a place to harness the fabric, and then handkerchief or other material used as a tourniquet, tie a loose limbs, making a sound loop hook it to be more than 1.5-2 times the circumference of the injured limb.Loop to put on an end node up by running 2-3 turns makeshift tourniquet around the limb, then a node to insert a solid stick or a plate and tighten the tourniquet until it stops bleeding.It should be remembered that pulling tight and rough cutting the waist can cause unwanted complications such as nerve damage to the extremities;moreover, use as tow or twists or rigid objects thin type or wire rope may damage the tissues and nerves.Check out the imposition of the spin should be tying a stick to the limb to twist not untwisted.
harness or twist should be applied above the wound, but as close as possible to it.Evidence of corresponding tourniquet or spin considered neproslushivanie pulsation vessels below the tourniquet, bleeding stops, the skin at the same pale.
If the bleeding does not stop, then twist or tourniquet was applied incorrectly, weakly, with the damaged artery was not completely clamped;In addition, tapered tow vein promote that limb begins to accumulate in the blood, the pressure in the vessels is increased, whereby bleeding can only increase, and the skin, due to overflow venous blood becomes bluish color.Tighten the tourniquet compresses the underlying tissues, including the nerves, is very strong, it can lead to crushing of tissues, including muscle, nerve and blood vessels, as this may lead to paralysis of limbs.
This method stops the bleeding is one of the most reliable, but the technique tourniquet on the limb does not end there.Since the imposition is almost complete cessation of blood supply to the wound, not only the region but also the entire limb below the tourniquet level, over time occurs necrosis of limbs.Therefore, apply a tourniquet to the limb should be no more than 2 hours in the warmer months, and 1 to 1.5 hours - in the cold.To properly control the time of tourniquet made under it enclose a note with the time of its imposition.If after this time the injured or sick, for whatever reason, was not taken to the medical center, the wiring must be removed and do it better together: one salvation is to hold finger pressing for a damaged artery above the harness and the other in the meantime, without haste,released to the blood stream is not pushed the formed clot dissolves harness for 3-5 minutes, after which again puts it on course, but slightly higher than the previous places overlay, do not forget to note the time of removal and the next tourniquet.The victim with cash on a limb tourniquet must remain under the supervision of a Saviour, which is to monitor the condition of the skin, the correctness of a tourniquet or newly discovered bleeding, to provide the necessary assistance to.
Implement this method only stops the bleeding with a strong arterial bleeding;or twist a tourniquet should always enclose any material;tight or tightening a tourniquet can not twist.
Common sites are the tourniquet forearm, upper arm, thigh, calf.
There is another method to temporarily stop the bleeding - forced flexion, which does not require special training to save; special knowledge and support tools.But this way of stopping the bleeding is advantageously carried out only when the upper limb injury, and to a lesser extent for the lower limbs, with the proviso that the fracture is not bleeding limbs.Forced flexion of the limb used to stop bleeding by inflection artery.
When wounded forearm and hand to stop arterial bleeding can be bent to failure elbow joint and fixing the bent forearm, pulling him to the shoulder by a bandage, cloth tape or other improvised material.
At the top of the shoulder injury and subclavian region, accompanied by arterial bleeding, should be forced to make the institution of the upper extremity of the back, with the crook of your elbow.The limb must be secured by a bandage or material at hand.
if damaged shoulder and subclavian arteries can be done another way of forced flexion, while the arteries are squeezed from both sides.To do this, you need to have both hands back the victim, in this case they will be bent at the elbows;then they need to pull together and lock in this position.
If the damage of the arteries of the lower extremity should be possible to bend the leg at the knee and hip joints and fix it in this position with the help of bandage or material at hand.
During the stop the bleeding in any way its effectiveness will be increased, if the damaged area to lift and to provide complete rest the injured body part.
temporarily stopping bleeding is not possible to produce internal bleeding, so the only effective help for the victim or patient is an urgent transport him to a hospital.
immediate hospitalization, without waiting for signs of internal bleeding, to be affected with severe abdominal injuries.When her injury spleen tissue begins to bleed rapidly until several hours after the injury.
When a head injury victim needs specialized medical care.
Bleeding in hemophilia stop using the same methods that are used in the types of traumatic bleeding: compressive bandage is applied, tamponade, intravenous calcium chloride, menadione (vitamin C) - as a styptic.When significant blood loss - blood transfusion.
In pulmonary hemorrhage patient should provide a complete rest, after putting to bed with raised head end.Discussions and strictly prohibited smoking, eating and drinking is particularly limited and is served cold.In severe cases, the cessation of bleeding can put an ice pack on his chest and the feet - warmers.The patient should be drunk polstakana salt solution prepared based 1-2 hours. Spoon half a glass of water (this occurs irritation of the stomach and intestine, in which vessels of the gastrointestinal tract are expanded, filled with blood, thus reducing blood filling smallcirculation) in a hospital setting is recommended the introduction of calcium chloride, glucose;with a strong cough prescribe codeine, dionin, at least - morphine;bleeding as a result of stagnation in the lungs showing cordial means.
slight nosebleeds in most cases stopped at the front tamponade piece of cotton or gauze, which are pre-moistened with hydrogen peroxide.To this end, the tampon through the wing of the nose should be pressed to the nasal septum and to keep for 15-20 minutes.In this case the patient should be given a horizontal position or sitting with her head thrown back, by hindering the free clothes.Upon termination of epistaxis can be applied cold compresses, ice packs, imposed on the nose and on the back of the head.Repeated bleeding is assigned to anesthesia, and then cauterizing the bleeding site chrome or TCA.In severe nosebleeds appointed by the anterior and posterior tamponade and drugs that increase blood clotting, autohemotherapy, blood transfusions.
hygroma (bleeding in the lining of the bag) treated with hot compress.
When hemorrhage into joints - hemarthrosis - should apply a pressure bandage on the joint area, ice pack, tire dressing.To speed up the process of resorption with 3-4-day should be used warmers.Cautious movements permitted from 10-12 th day.In the absence of direct effect of the patient to the hospital, where used puncture, aspiration of blood, accelerating recovery.
prevention is protection against re-injury.In the case of an acute course of the disease should seek medical advice immediately.
Bleeding resulting from rupture of the aneurysm (arterial dilation) alone or with someone's help is impossible to stop, need urgent hospitalization of the patient for surgery.Before the arrival of "first aid" can apply finger pressing alignment artery.To prevent rupture of an artery pressing her finger recommended daily for 1-2 hours. It is carried out by pressure above the aneurysm at locations where the vessel is located more superficial and deep can be pressed against the bone.
Parenchymal bleeding can be stopped by a garden of ergot drugs, goldenseal, drugs that increase blood clotting.The patient should be transported immediately to a hospital where the surgical intervention parenchymal bleeding will be stopped completely.