This tissue damage resulting from exposure to low temperatures.With the weakening of the body (illness, injury, prolonged exposure to wind and cold), frostbite can occur even at a temperature of + 3-7 ° C.More prone to frostbite distal limbs, ears and nose.
degrees of frostbite
I degree: skin lesions in a variety of disorders of the circulation.The skin is pale, somewhat swollen, its sensitivity is dramatically reduced or absent.After warming the skin becomes bluish-red color, swelling increases, often observed dull pain.Later, there is flaking and itching of the skin.Area frostbite is often very sensitive to cold.
II degree manifested by necrosis of the surface layers of the skin.When warming pale skin become purple-bluish color, fast growing tissue swelling that spreads beyond frostbite.In the frostbite area formed blisters filled with clear or white liquid.Circulation is slowly recovering.To this degree frostbite is characterized by general phenomena: fever, chills, malaise, poor sleep and appet
III degree - significant circulatory disorders (thrombosis), leading to necrosis of all layers of the skin and soft tissues at different depths, and this depth is revealed gradually.In the early days - skin necrosis: bubbles, fluid-filled dark cherry color.Deep tissue damage is detected after 3-5 days in a moist gangrene.Fabrics palpation totally insensitive, but patients suffering from excruciating pain.General phenomena at a given degree of frostbite are expressed more strongly.Intoxication is manifested stunning chills, significant malaise, lethargy, apathy.
IVstepen.It characterized by necrosis of the tissue layers, including bone.The skin is cold and absolutely insensitive quickly blisters filled with black liquid.Border damage revealed slowly.A distinct line of demarcation appears after 10-17 days, there is a dry gangrene.Overall condition is very serious, there are degenerative changes in the organs, severe intoxication, a pain.
Help paramedic is immediate warming of the victim, and especially - frostbitten body parts.The victim is placed in a warm room.It is necessary to restore blood circulation in the frostbitten body part, this is achieved by the thermal baths.For 20-35 minutes, the water temperature is gradually increased from 20 to 40 ° C, and the limb washed with soap and water from contamination.After the bath, damaged areas are dried, stacked thick aseptic bandage.It is impossible to grease, ointments, especially rubbing the skin with snow, leading to its greater trauma and infection.
Of great importance is the overall warming of the victim.Given hot tea, coffee, milk, painkillers are administered.Patients hospitalized in the surgical ward or hospital, or in a burn center.