Light therapy (phototherapy )

August 12, 2017 17:50 | Nursing

Phototherapy (or phototherapy) is one of the most ancient and natural healing methods.It is known that sunlight is very common and widely used by doctors of ancient Egypt and ancient Greece to treat a variety of diseases.Even then, doctors have noticed that sunlight is essential to maintain health at the proper level.At deficiency of light in people, not only violated natural physiological processes (eg, growth and development), but there are many serious diseases (rickets, tuberculosis, various infectious diseases, skin lesions, and even mental disorders).For hundreds of thousands of years of evolution, man has always felt the biological effects of light, and his body has adapted to this effect, and learned to use it for their livelihoods.As special research, sunlight is able to influence the function of the cardiovascular, immune system, brain, as well as in humans to stimulate the synthesis of vitamin D and many important secretion of biologically active substances and hormones.Furthermore, it deter

mines sunlight biological rhythm of the human body.

development of light therapy, or phototherapy, began in the first half of XX century., When, thanks to the success of physical science, scientists were able to distinguish between different types of light emission, each of which had a special impact on the human body.Phototherapy is considered the pioneer of Danish scientist N. Finsen, who not only opened the very first institute of light therapy, but also developed the first phototherapy devices and therapies for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize.Currently, phototherapy with the purpose of treatment for a variety of devices that produce infrared, visible and ultraviolet light.Infrared radiation is characterized by the length of the light wave of 400 micrometers (1 micrometer = 1 millionth of a meter) to 760 nm (1 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter), visible light - wavelength from 760 to 400 nm, and the ultraviolet - from 400 to 2 nm.Together, these make up the radiation optical radiation.For therapeutic and prophylactic use optical radiation in the range from 400 microns to 180 nm.Special studies have found that human skin from unpigmented reflects 62% of incident infrared to it, and 13% of ultraviolet rays, while on the pigmented skin - only 42% of infrared and only 8% of ultraviolet rays.This is because a large amount of pigment in the skin appears - melanin, which has good absorption capacity and reflects less light beams.Ultraviolet radiation penetrates tissue in the human body to a small depth - to 1 mm, and infrared and visible radiation to penetrate deeper subcutaneous tissue -. 4-5 cm long-wave is well absorbed by the skin horny layer and Malpighian, shortwave part of the most strongly absorbed by the stratum corneum.Absorption of infrared radiation of any tissue of the animal is mostly rotational and oscillatory motion of entire molecules and atoms, while part of the optical absorption of ultraviolet radiation is associated with the movement of electrons (the so-called photoelectric effect).In general, the energy absorbed luminous flux gives rise to in the human organism of complex biological reactions.The biological effect of light is extremely diverse and is closely dependent on the spectral composition of the light flux used for irradiation of the pathological focus, using any device.

As a result of the absorption of the tissues of the skin of human infrared and visible radiation energy occurring molecular changes such as an increase in the irradiated area of ​​the body temperature, acceleration of physical and chemical reactions in the body, stimulation of receptors and interoceptors vessels and tissue, sensing temperature fluctuations.Changing the functions of the corresponding nerve centers gives rise to physiological reactions in the human body, both local and general.Special investigations it was found that when the light irradiation heat of the skin in the area of ​​the lower thoracic and lumbar spine is marked not only hyperemia (redness of the skin), but also the expansion of the renal vessels, increasing their urinary function;and at the same irradiation of the stomach improves motor and contractile function of stomach,

reduced spasticity.Visible light radiation on the human body has not only the heat effect but also more complex when exposed to illumination on the eye, where the nerve impulses to the brain receives, reach the pituitary and other endocrine glands.The hormones of these glands will eventually influence the process of getting into the blood stream, have an impact on the life of the whole organism.In carrying out specific studies in the laboratory of a prominent Russian psychiatrist and neuropathologist VMSpondylitis was found the effect of different gradation of color lighting on the rate of flow of psychic processes.It was noted soothing blue color when mental stimulation and depression positive effect on mental state had a pink color (red excites the mind to a great extent).

variety of plant and apparatus apply for phototherapy.For infrared light, designed for exposure to heat in the pathological lesions, previously used simple installation.

used in phototherapy lamps solljuks three kinds:

• stationary on a tripod with a lamp 500-1000 W;

• Portable Lamp 200-300 W;

• table with lamp 200 watts.Infrared rays penetrate such a lamp to a depth of 5 cm, thus there is a warming of the lesion.

1. «Lamp» Infrared on a tripod, where the radiation source was a Nichrome filament wound on a ceramic base.infrared radiation flux in the lamp was directed to the area of ​​the pathological focus via the reflector.The temperature of the glow filament in the "lamp" reached 500 ° C, so it is set at a distance of 60-70 cm from the patient and adjusted by the degree of heat sensation of the patient.exposure duration was 20 to 40 minutes, procedures performed daily or every other day for the entire course of treatment was administered 15 to 20 procedures.This lamp is designed for surface effects of heat on the pathological focus.

2. solljuks lamp, fixed on a tripod with an incandescent lamp with capacity from 200 to 1000 W, in which the temperature reached 3600 ° C.Radiation lamps solljuks contains from 80 to 90% of infrared rays and visible light 12-10%.This lamp had a parabolic reflector, mounted on a tripod.By the reflector, if necessary, was attached removable tube-localizer, limiting the exposure area with a small portion of the pathological focus.It (tube) strengthened in a special cutout glass filters of red and blue glass, is used for uniform exposure to light.

depending on its lamp power solljuks placed at a distance of 40-100 cm from the patient, the duration of irradiation procedure ranged from 15 to 30 minutes, every day or every other day.In the entire course of treatment was 20 to 25 procedures.

At present, similar procedures for phototherapy began to use portable phones "Geske 'series, which are the source of powerful monochromatic red and infrared radiation, which by its parameters closer to the laser.The main active component in the devices 'Geske' are special infrared LEDs, which has the most pronounced biological effects on the human body, especially on the pathological center, while the impact extends to a depth of 5-7 cm, which means that it can affectnot only directly on the skin, but also in the deeper layers of the skin under - muscle tissue, joints and nerves.Furthermore, when exposed to infrared radiation "Geske" device to the region of large blood vessels of the surface location, as well as subcutaneous lymph nodes (e.g., axillary, elbow and popliteal fossa);finally there is a general effect on the entire body through the activation of the universal functions of blood and lymph..

Special studies conducted in the 1990s showed that the energy of infrared radiation from the machine, "Geske" activates the biologically active molecules and enzymes in different tissues of the body, with the result that there are the following reactions:

• improves overall andlocal blood circulation

• increases protein synthesis activity, and thus speeds up the process and lymph circulation;

regeneration and healing in the pathological focus;

• reduced blood pressure;

• decreases tissue swelling;

• increased activity of the immune system;

• there is muscle relaxation;

• provided a bactericidal effect.

• analgesic effect is achieved;

the above studies were scientifically justified following the indications for use of phototherapy "Geske" series devices:

• diseases of the musculoskeletal system: arthrosis, arthritis, joint injuries and bone, spinal osteochondrosis, muscle injury;

• skin diseases: herpes, abrasions, acne vulgaris, atopic dermatitis, allergic dermatitis, eczema, lichen planus, herpes zoster, psoriasis;

• surgical diseases: prevention of postoperative complications, treatment of wounds, burns, abrasions, bruises;

• cardiovascular disease: coronary heart disease, hypertension, vegetative (neurocirculatory) dystonia, varicose veins, thrombophlebitis, atherosclerosis of the limbs;

• respiratory system diseases: acute respiratory infections, acute and chronic bronchitis, tracheitis, pneumonia, asthma;

• ENT diseases, acute and chronic: sinusitis, rhinitis, otitis, tonsillitis;

• neurological diseases: neuritis and neuralgia, consequences of stroke, traumatic brain injuries and spinal cord injuries;

• urological diseases: chronic inflammatory diseases of the kidney and urinary tract diseases, chronic and acute prostatitis;

• gynecological diseases: pelvic inflammatory disease, cracked nipples, mastitis;

• oral disease: treatment of complicated caries, stomatitis, gingivitis, periodontitis.

• abdominal pain without clearly defined reasons;:

simultaneously in clinical trials following contraindications have been identified

• pregnancy;

• cancer;

• acute thrombosis and thrombophlebitis;

• severe cardiovascular disease, diabetes, kidney disease and liver, severe infectious diseases;

• sores, boils, abscesses prior to surgery.

detailed descriptions of the methods of apparatus "Geske" with specific diseases contained in the leaflet that came with each device.

Since 2001, specialized clinics and spas very successfully used for the treatment of various diseases by a combination of phototherapy, and magnetotherapy devices "Geske-MAG".These highly advanced devices have a special magnetic nozzle, produces a slowly varying magnetic field.This original machine can further enhance the effect of phototherapy during phototherapy exposure procedures.As a result of the combined treatment increased the efficiency of medical procedures, reduced recovery time.

special studies and clinical trials, it was found that the magnetic field greatly enhances the effects of infrared radiation following: analgesic and anti-edema effect, dilation of blood vessels and stimulation of local blood circulation, accelerating the processes of healing and regeneration of the skin and muscle tissue.In addition, the magnetic field in conjunction with infrared radiation of the same unit has a number of additional effects, primarily decrease blood viscosity (thrombotic effect) and is also characterized by antiallergic activity.

Indications and contraindications for the use of the machine, "Geske-MAG" in phototherapy procedures are the same as that of the "Geske" series devices.In any case should consult a physician.

has long been used with phototherapy lamp Minin having incandescent bulb 60 W bulb with blue glass.This lamp is portable, has a mirror reflector - reflector of parabolic shape and a wooden or plastic handle, the presence of which allows the patient to keep a lamp or hang it on the hook by the bed.If necessary to replace the blue light bulb for red infrared radiation.The irradiation lamp Minin withstand a distance of 15-20 cm from the surface of the bulb to the pathological focus, but usually the distance is set on the basis of the patient's feelings.Exposure time is between 15 to 20 minutes, the treatments are carried out daily 1-2 times a day.In the whole course of treatment prescribed to 15 radiation treatments.

Local actinothermal bath designed for irradiation of the whole body or the lower extremities.In the first case, the 12 incandescent lamps 60-75 W, while the second - 8 lamps of the same power.Construction LHE bath is a plastic or metal frame, on which are located the inner surface and the filament lamp reflectors - plate, whereby the air is heated to 70 ° C.In such baths on the patient's body are infrared and visible radiation and heated air.To the heated air is not left out of the bath in the room, its top is covered with a blanket or sheet.There are two methods of phototherapy using LHE procedures: local and general effects.When the method of local exposure to radiation is subjected to a small area of ​​the pathological focus, with the pre-release of the clothes and objects, compressing the tissue and preventing blood flow normalization (eg, wrist watches or jewelery in the form of bracelets).During the light therapy treatment, the patient is required to wear special sunglasses.Duration of exposure at LHE procedures set normally but the patient's sensation, and existing standards are between 20 to 30 minutes during their daily or every other day.

established scientifically based indications for LHE treatments:

• acute and chronic inflammatory processes (infiltration);

• inflammatory pathological lesions;

• pain (myositis, myalgia, neuralgia);

• vyalozazhivayuschie wounds and ulcers;

• burns and frostbite;

• contracture;

• adhesions;

• fusion of different origin.

There are some contraindications:

• neoplasms;

• circulatory insufficiency II-III degree;

• bleeding;

• acute purulent inflammatory diseases.